Special Issue "Electrochromic Polymers"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Sheng-Huei Hsiao

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: high performance polymers; redox polymers; electrochromic polymers
Guest Editor
Prof. Guey-Sheng Liou

Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electroactive photoluminescence aromatic polymers; organic electrochromic materials; highly transparent polymers and their hybrids for optical and electronic application

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochromism refers to the alternation of optical absorption or color of an electroactive species by electrochemically induced redox reactions. This intriguing property has shown great promise in applications such as optical switching devices, data storage, displays, auto-dimming mirrors, smart windows, adaptive camouflage, eyewear, and energy storage devices. A number of organic, inorganic, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been used to construct electrochromic devices, such as transition metal oxides, inorganic coordination complexes, organic dyes and polymers, and organic-metallic hybrid polymers. Among the different types of electrochromic materials, organic polymers attract much attention because of several advantages such as mechanical flexibility, enhanced processability, easy color tuning, rapid switching and high coloration efficiency. In order to reflect the current state of the art on the subject and to explore potential future developments, the present Special Issue welcomes submissions on all aspects of electrochromic polymers ranging from synthesis and characterization to structural modification, processing, and new applications.

Prof. Sheng-Huei Hsiao
Prof. Guey-Sheng Liou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electrochromic polymers
  • Polymer-based electrochromic devices
  • Polymers and their hybrids for electrochromic applications
  • Opto-electrochemical characterization of polymers

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020267
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, [...] Read more.
Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Grafting and Molecular Dilution: Study of a Class of Conjugated Graft Copolymers
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020205
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
A type of graft copolymer based on polysiloxane and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been synthesised and its properties have been studied alongside those of its parent conjugated polymer—regioregular P3HT. Electrochemical analysis has revealed more significant changes in conformation of the copolymer film than [...] Read more.
A type of graft copolymer based on polysiloxane and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been synthesised and its properties have been studied alongside those of its parent conjugated polymer—regioregular P3HT. Electrochemical analysis has revealed more significant changes in conformation of the copolymer film than was observed for P3HT. UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigation provided evidence of improved doping reversibility of the copolymer, despite its marginally increased band gap, as also confirmed by electroconductometric analysis. Evidence has been shown, indicating that polaron mobilities in both P3HT and the copolymer are higher than those of bipolaronic charge carriers, even though both systems exhibit standard doping/dedoping patterns. The grafted copolymer was tested in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Preliminary studies show a great potential of these polymers for application in photovoltaics. Power conversion efficiency of up to 2.46% was achieved despite the dilution of the P3HT chains in the copolymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Color Tuning by Oxide Addition in PEDOT:PSS-Based Electrochromic Devices
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010179
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Poly(3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives conducting polymers are known for their great electrochromic (EC) properties offering a reversible blue switch under an applied voltage. Characterizations of symmetrical EC devices, built on combinations of PEDOT thin films, deposited with a bar coater from commercial inks, and [...] Read more.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives conducting polymers are known for their great electrochromic (EC) properties offering a reversible blue switch under an applied voltage. Characterizations of symmetrical EC devices, built on combinations of PEDOT thin films, deposited with a bar coater from commercial inks, and separated by a lithium-based ionic membrane, show highest performance for 800 nm thickness. Tuning of the color is further achieved by mixing the PEDOT film with oxides. Taking, in particular, the example of optically inactive iron oxide Fe2O3, a dark blue to reddish switch, of which intensity depends on the oxide content, is reported. Careful evaluation of the chromaticity parameters L*, a*, and b*, with oxidizing/reducing potentials, evidences a possible monitoring of the bluish tint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochromism in Electropolymerized Films of Pyrene-Triphenylamine Derivatives
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010073
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
Two star-shaped multi-triphenylamine derivatives 1 and 2 were prepared, where 2 has an additional phenyl unit between a pyrene core and surrounding triphenylamine units. The oxidative electropolymerization of 1 and 2 occurred smoothly to give thin films of polymers P1 and P2. [...] Read more.
Two star-shaped multi-triphenylamine derivatives 1 and 2 were prepared, where 2 has an additional phenyl unit between a pyrene core and surrounding triphenylamine units. The oxidative electropolymerization of 1 and 2 occurred smoothly to give thin films of polymers P1 and P2. The electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of P1 and P2 were examined, showing two-step absorption spectral changes in the near-infrared region. The electrochromic properties, including contrast ratio, response time, and cyclic stability of P1 and P2 were investigated and compared. Thin film of P2 displays slightly better electrochromic performance than P1, with a contrast ratio of 45% at 1475 nm being achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(2,6-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridine)-Type Polymer Films and PEDOT-PSS
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060604
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
2,6-Di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridine (DiCP) was synthesized and its corresponding homopolymer (PDiCP) and copolymers (P(DiCP-co-CPDT), P(DiCP-co-CPDT2), P(DiCP-co-CPDTK), and P(DiCP-co-CPDTK2)) were synthesized electrochemically. The anodic copolymer with DiCP:cyclopentadithiophene ketone (CPDTK) = 1:1 feed molar ratio showed high transmittance change [...] Read more.
2,6-Di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridine (DiCP) was synthesized and its corresponding homopolymer (PDiCP) and copolymers (P(DiCP-co-CPDT), P(DiCP-co-CPDT2), P(DiCP-co-CPDTK), and P(DiCP-co-CPDTK2)) were synthesized electrochemically. The anodic copolymer with DiCP:cyclopentadithiophene ketone (CPDTK) = 1:1 feed molar ratio showed high transmittance change (ΔT%) and colouration efficiency (η), which were measured as 39.5% and 184.1 cm2 C−1 at 1037 nm, respectively. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) were composed of PDiCP, P(DiCP-co-CPDT), P(DiCP-co-CPDT2), P(DiCP-co-CPDTK), and P(DiCP-co-CPDTK2) as anodically-colouring polymers, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS) as cathodically-colouring polymers. P(DiCP-co-CPDTK)/PEDOT-PSS ECD showed light silverish-yellow at 0.0 V, light grey at 0.7 V, grey at 1.3 V, light greyish blue at 1.7 V, and greyish blue at 2.0 V. Moreover, P(DiCP-co-CPDTK)/PEDOT-PSS ECD presented high ΔT (38.2%) and high η (633.8 cm2 C−1) at 635 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Soluble Electrochromic Polymers Incorporating Benzoselenadiazole and Electron Donor Units (Carbazole or Fluorene): Synthesis and Electronic-Optical Properties
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040450
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of π-conjugated polymers containing alternating benzoselenadiazole (BSe)-bi(thiophene derivative)-carbazole or benzoththiadiazole (BSe)-bi(thiophene derivative)-fluorene units were designed and synthesized. Thiophene derivatives, namely 3-hexylthiophene, 3,4-bihexyloxythiophene, and 3,4-bioctyloxythiophene, were used as the π-bridges of the polymers. The polymers were characterized in detail in terms of [...] Read more.
A series of π-conjugated polymers containing alternating benzoselenadiazole (BSe)-bi(thiophene derivative)-carbazole or benzoththiadiazole (BSe)-bi(thiophene derivative)-fluorene units were designed and synthesized. Thiophene derivatives, namely 3-hexylthiophene, 3,4-bihexyloxythiophene, and 3,4-bioctyloxythiophene, were used as the π-bridges of the polymers. The polymers were characterized in detail in terms of their thermal stabilities, cyclic voltammograms, UV-Vis absorption, spectroelectrochemistry, dynamic switching property and so forth. The alkoxy thiophene π-bridged polymers have lower onset oxidation potentials and bandgaps than that of their corresponding alkyl thiophene π-bridged polymers. The selection of the donor units between the carbazole and the fluorene units has nearly no effect on the bandgaps and colors as well as the onset oxidation potentials of the polymers. The increase in the length of the side alkyl chains on the thiophene ring caused a slight increase in the polymer bandgap, which may be caused by the space hindrance effect. The dynamic switching abilities of the polymers were obtained by the chronoabsorptometry method, and the results also suggested that the alkoxy thiophene-containing polymers (as π-bridges) have higher contrast ratios than the corresponding alkyl thiophene-containing polymers. Furthermore, the increase in the length of the side alkyl chain might have a detrimental effect on the optical contrast ratios of the polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Transparent to Black Electrochromism—The “Holy Grail” of Organic Optoelectronics
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020273
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
In the rapidly developing field of conjugated polymer science, the attribute of electrochromism these materials exhibit provides for a multitude of innovative application opportunities. Featuring low electric potential driven colour change, complemented by favourable mechanical and processing properties, an array of non-emissive electrochromic [...] Read more.
In the rapidly developing field of conjugated polymer science, the attribute of electrochromism these materials exhibit provides for a multitude of innovative application opportunities. Featuring low electric potential driven colour change, complemented by favourable mechanical and processing properties, an array of non-emissive electrochromic device (ECD) applications lays open ahead of them. Building up from the simplest two-colour cell, multielectrochromic arrangements are being devised, taking advantage of new electrochromic materials emerging at a fast pace. The ultimate device goal encompasses full control over the intensity and spectrum of passing light, including the two extremes of complete and null transmittance. With numerous electrochromic device architectures being explored and their operating parameters constantly ameliorated to pursue this target, a summary and overview of developments in the field is presented. Discussing the attributes of reported electrochromic systems, key research points and challenges are identified, providing an outlook for this exciting topic of polymer material science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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Open AccessReview Electroluminochromic Materials: From Molecules to Polymers
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010098
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electroluminochromism is an interesting property found in certain classes of molecules and polymers whose photoluminescence can be modulated through the application of an external electrical bias. Unlike electrochromic materials, electroluminochromic counterparts and their applications are comparatively fewer in quantity and are less established. [...] Read more.
Electroluminochromism is an interesting property found in certain classes of molecules and polymers whose photoluminescence can be modulated through the application of an external electrical bias. Unlike electrochromic materials, electroluminochromic counterparts and their applications are comparatively fewer in quantity and are less established. Nonetheless, there prevails an increasing interest in this class of electro-active materials due to their potential applications in optoelectronics, such as smart-displays, and chemical and biological sensing. This review seeks to showcase the different classes of electroluminochromic materials with focus on (i) organic molecules, (ii) transition metal complexes, and (iii) organic polymers. The mechanisms and electroluminochromic performance of these classes of materials are summarized. This review should allow scientists to have a better and deeper understanding of materials design strategies and, more importantly, structure-property relationships and, thus, develops electroluminochromic materials with desired performance in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochromic Polymers)
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