Special Issue "Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ewa Hanus-Fajerska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Botany, Physiology and Plant Protection, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
Interests: stress tolerance; halophytes; salinity; drought; environmental factors; adaptation; plant growth and development; agricultural biotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Iwona Kamińska
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Botany, Physiology and Plant Protection, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
Interests: plants’ response to stress, stress tolerance, salt stress, drought, antioxidative system in plants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Salinity gradient is one of plant diversity determinants in land and water ecosystems. Species that grow in saline habitats, salt marshes, salt deserts, mangroves, or near the sea shores are termed halophytes. Currently, salinity is one of the major stressors of plants, and salt-tolerant species usually have to cope with several other abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. The important problem worldwide, even in semi-arid areas, is not only drought, but also the successive salinization of arable land. Therefore, researchers are becoming increasingly interested in a group of xerohalophytes that display an excellent ability to grow in salinized environments characterized by low water availability. Some of these species have been applied to fixation of sand dunes or may be used for phytoremediation schemes of saline agricultural areas.

This Special Issue welcomes recent articles related to all the above mentioned areas. Multidisciplinary comparative studies are also welcome. Particular emphasis is also placed on high-value Products obtained as a result of halophyte cultivation. We think that the readers of the MDPI journal Plants will benefit from every viewpoint presented by this wide scientific community.

Prof. Dr. Ewa Hanus-Fajerska
Dr. Iwona Kamińska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ecophysiology
  • salt tolerant plants
  • saline vegetation
  • drought tolerance
  • xerohalophytes
  • plant metabolites
  • root extracellular activity
  • root system
  • microbiota

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Effects of Salinity on the Growth and Nutrition of Taro (Colocasia esculenta): Implications for Food Security
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112319 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is a staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region in areas where rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production. However, little is known about its response to salinity. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity [...] Read more.
Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is a staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region in areas where rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production. However, little is known about its response to salinity. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the growth, morphology, physiology, and chemical traits of taro to predict the impacts of rising sea levels on taro production and nutritional value in the Pacific. We grew taro (approximately 4 months old) with a range of NaCl treatments (0–200 mM) for 12 weeks. Full nutrient, micronutrient, and secondary metabolite analyses were conducted, including measures of calcium oxalate (CaOx), an irritant that reduces palatability. Significant reductions in growth and biomass were observed at and above 100 mM NaCl. Concentrations of macro- and micronutrients, including sodium, were higher on a per mass basis in corms of plants experiencing salt stress. Foliar sodium concentrations remained stable, indicating that taro may utilize a salt exclusion mechanism. There was a large amount of individual variation in the concentrations of oxalate and phenolics, but overall, the concentrations were similar in the plants grown with different levels of salt. The total contents of CaOx and phenolics decreased in plants experiencing salt stress. Taro’s ability to survive and produce corms when watered with a 200 mM NaCl solution places it among the salt-tolerant non-halophytes. The nutritional quality of the crop is only marginally affected by salt stress. Taro is, therefore, likely to remain a useful staple in the Pacific region in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Salt Stress Amelioration in Maize Plants through Phosphogypsum Application and Bacterial Inoculation
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102024 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The use of phosphogypsum (PG) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for agricultural purposes are good options to improve soil properties and increase crop yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different rates of PG (ton ha−1; [...] Read more.
The use of phosphogypsum (PG) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for agricultural purposes are good options to improve soil properties and increase crop yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different rates of PG (ton ha−1; 0 (PG1), 3 (PG2), 6 (PG3), and 9 (PG4)) combined with PGPR inoculation (Azospirillum lipoferum (control, T1), A. lipoferum + Bacillus coagulans (T2), A. lipoferum + B. circulance (T3), and A. lipoferumB. subtilis (T4)) on soil properties, plant physiology, antioxidant enzymes, nutrient uptake, and yield of maize plants (Zea mays L., cv. HSC 10) grown in salt-affected soil. Over two growing seasons, 2019 and 2020, field experiments were conducted as a split-plot design with triplicates. The results show that applying PG (9 ton ha−1) and co-inoculation (A. lipoferum + B. circulance) treatment significantly increased chlorophyll and carotenoids content, antioxidant enzymes, microbial communities, soil enzymes activity, and nutrient contents, and showed inhibitory impacts on proline content and pH, as well as EC and ESP, thus improving the productivity of maize plant compared to the control treatment. It could be concluded that PG, along with microbial inoculation, may be an important approach for ameliorating the negative impacts of salinity on maize plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Beet Molasses Enhance Salinity Tolerance in Thymus serpyllum—A Study under Greenhouse Condition
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091819 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
The growing demand for Thymus serpyllum biomass to produce drugs, cosmetics and spices necessitates the search for innovative methods mitigating the negative effects of environmental stressors in order to improve its yield under unfavorable conditions. Due to the exposure of plants to salinity [...] Read more.
The growing demand for Thymus serpyllum biomass to produce drugs, cosmetics and spices necessitates the search for innovative methods mitigating the negative effects of environmental stressors in order to improve its yield under unfavorable conditions. Due to the exposure of plants to salinity stress (SS), we investigated the effect of sugar beet molasses (SBM) on the growth and biochemical parameters related to plants’ response to SS. Wild thyme plants were treated for 5 weeks to sodium chloride and 3% molasses solution using two modes of application (soil irrigation or foliar sprays). Plants irrigated by SBM showed slighter stem growth inhibition than control plants, high stress tolerance index and maintained a constant root water content under salt stress. Moreover plants treated with 100 mM NaCl and soil-applied SBM had lower lipid peroxidation level, showed lower POD activity, higher total soluble protein content and maintained a more even free amino acids level, compared to the control treatments. The concentration of potassium ions was higher in the case of plant roots irrigation with sugar beet molasses compared to control plants. In this experiment, most of the growth and biochemical parameters from foliar molasses-sprayed plants did not differ significantly from the control. We provided evidence that soil-applied SBM beneficially changed the plant’s biochemical response to salt stress. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that this soil amendment contributes to the strengthening of plant protection against this harmful environmental factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Rootstock-Dependent Response of Hass Avocado to Salt Stress
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081672 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Salt stress is a major limiting factor in avocado (Persea americana) cultivation, exacerbated by global trends towards scarcity of high-quality water for irrigation. Israeli avocado orchards have been irrigated with relatively high-salinity recycled municipal wastewater for over three decades, over which [...] Read more.
Salt stress is a major limiting factor in avocado (Persea americana) cultivation, exacerbated by global trends towards scarcity of high-quality water for irrigation. Israeli avocado orchards have been irrigated with relatively high-salinity recycled municipal wastewater for over three decades, over which time rootstocks were selected for salt-tolerance. This study’s objective was to evaluate the physiological salt response of avocado as a function of the rootstock. We irrigated fruit-bearing ‘Hass’ trees grafted on 20 different local and introduced rootstocks with water high in salts (electrical conductivity of 1.4–1.5 dS/m). The selected rootstocks represent a wide range of genetic backgrounds, propagation methods, and horticultural characteristics. We investigated tree physiology and development during two years of salt exposure by measuring Cl and Na leaf concentrations, leaf osmolality, visible damages, trunk circumference, LAI, CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, spectral reflectance, stem water potential, trichomes density, and yield. We found a significant effect of the rootstocks on stress indicators, vegetative and reproductive development, leaf morphogenesis and photosynthesis rates. The most salt-sensitive rootstocks were VC 840, Dusa, and VC 802, while the least sensitive were VC 159, VC 140, and VC 152. We conclude that the rootstock strongly influences avocado tree response to salinity exposure in terms of physiology, anatomy, and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Reclaiming to Brackish Wetlands in the Alberta Oil Sands: Comparison of Responses to Sodium Concentrations by Carex atherodes and Carex aquatilis
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081511 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
The variation in sodium concentrations in waters of natural fens and marshes on the western Canadian landscape provides a background for choosing the appropriate plants for wetland reclamation. Broad tolerances to salinity are especially important for reclamation trials on saline-rich ‘in-pits’ that were [...] Read more.
The variation in sodium concentrations in waters of natural fens and marshes on the western Canadian landscape provides a background for choosing the appropriate plants for wetland reclamation. Broad tolerances to salinity are especially important for reclamation trials on saline-rich ‘in-pits’ that were left from open-pit oil sands mining. One such species, Carex aquatilis, has been identified as a key species in early reclamation attempts; however, at the Sandhill Wetland on the Syncrude Canada oil sands lease, this species has aggressively colonized, dominating parts of the wetland and limiting species diversity. A second species, also widespread on natural lake shores and marshes, is Carex atherodes, with field observations suggesting a broad tolerance to salinity. Here, we examine the responses of this species to a series of sodium concentrations and compare these to those of C. aquatilis. In particular, we addressed three questions: (1) How do structural attributes of C. atherodes respond to a series of Na+ concentration treatments? (2) Are different structural responses related to the functional attributes of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and/or transpiration rate? (3) How do these responses compare to those of C. aquatilis? We implemented a phytotron experiment to test the responses of these two species to either five or six concentrations of sodium, ranging from 20 to 3000 mg Na+ L−1. In general, structural responses of C. atherodes did not differ between 50 and 789 mg Na+ L−1, while performances of all attributes were reduced at 1407 mg L−1. Physiological attributes had high variation, but also had reduced performances at similar treatment levels. In comparison, a clear threshold was present for structural attributes in Carex aquatilis between 1650 and 2148 mg Na+ L−1, while physiological attributes were reduced between 1035 to 1650 mg Na+ L−1. These responses from C. aquatilis were similar to those previously reported. Na+ concentrations in porewater at the Sandhill Wetland in 2019 reached as high as 1200 mg Na+ L−1, with natural subsaline and sodic sites ranging much higher. Although all of the plants in the treatments remained viable at the end of the experiment, these results indicate that Na+ concentrations above 1500–2000 mg Na+ L−1 may inhibit the growth of these two species and decrease their competitive abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Exogenous Putrescine Enhances Salt Tolerance and Ginsenosides Content in Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) Sprouts
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071313 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
The effect of exogenously applied putrescine (Put) on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Thirty-day-old ginseng sprouts were grown in salinized nutrient solution (150 mM NaCl) for five days, while the control sprouts were grown in nutrients solution. Putrescine (0.3, [...] Read more.
The effect of exogenously applied putrescine (Put) on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Thirty-day-old ginseng sprouts were grown in salinized nutrient solution (150 mM NaCl) for five days, while the control sprouts were grown in nutrients solution. Putrescine (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) was sprayed on the plants once at the onset of salinity treatment, whereas control plants were sprayed with water only. Ginseng seedlings tested under salinity exhibited reduced plant growth and biomass production, which was directly interlinked with reduced chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence due to higher reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide; H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA) production. Application of Put enhanced accumulation of proline, total soluble carbohydrate, total soluble sugar and total soluble protein. At the same time, activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase in leaves, stems, and roots of ginseng seedlings were increased. Such modulation of physio-biochemical processes reduced the level of H2O2 and MDA, which indicates a successful adaptation of ginseng seedlings to salinity stress. Moreover, protopanaxadiol (PPD) ginsenosides enhanced by both salinity stress and exogenous Put treatment. On the other hand, protopanaxatriol (PPT) ginsenosides enhanced in roots and reduced in leaves and stems under salinity stress condition. In contrast, they enhanced by exogenous Put application in all parts of the plants for most cases, also evidenced by principal component analysis. Collectively, our findings provide an important prospect for the use of Put in modulating salinity tolerance and ginsenosides content in ginseng sprouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Different Rhizospheric pH Conditions Affect Nutrient Accumulations in Rice under Salinity Stress
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071295 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the responses to saline-alkaline (SA) stress with regard to nutrient accumulation in two rice varieties having different tolerances to salt-stress. A salinity-tolerant landrace, Pokkali, and a salinity-sensitive variety, PTT1, were exposed to three levels of SA conditions, [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine the responses to saline-alkaline (SA) stress with regard to nutrient accumulation in two rice varieties having different tolerances to salt-stress. A salinity-tolerant landrace, Pokkali, and a salinity-sensitive variety, PTT1, were exposed to three levels of SA conditions, pH 7.0 (mild), pH 8.0 (moderate), and pH 9.0 (severe), under 50 mM Na stress. The results indicated that Pokkali had comparably greater SA tolerance than PTT1 owing to its higher biomass production. The maintenance of the lower Na/K ratio in Pokkali shoots was achieved by the higher expression of OsHKT1;5 encoding a Na+ transporter in the shoots, OsNHX1 encoding a tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ antiporter in the roots, and OsHAK16 encoding a K+ transporter in the roots under SA conditions. We propose that the high expression of Fe deficiency-responsive genes, OsIRT1, OsIRO2, OsYSL15, OsNAS1, and OsNAS2, in both rice varieties under all SA conditions should contribute to Fe homeostasis in the shoots. In addition, SA treatment increased the concentrations of Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu in the roots but decreased their concentrations in the shoots of both varieties. Overall, the results indicated that high rhizospheric pH influenced nutrient uptake and translocation from the roots to the shoots in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Root-System Architectures of Two Cuban Rice Cultivars with Salt Stress at Early Development Stages
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061194 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Soil salinity is a critical problem for rice production and is also often associated with phosphors (P) deficiency. Plant hormones, like brassinosteroids, were shown to play a role in plant responses to different stresses and are also expected to mitigate salt stress. The [...] Read more.
Soil salinity is a critical problem for rice production and is also often associated with phosphors (P) deficiency. Plant hormones, like brassinosteroids, were shown to play a role in plant responses to different stresses and are also expected to mitigate salt stress. The aim of this study was to compare shoot growth and root architecture traits of two rice cultivars (INCA LP-5 and Perla de Cuba) during early plant development in response to salt, P limitation and a brassinosteroid. Seeds were placed in (I) paper rolls for 7 days and (II) mini-rhizotrons for 21 days without or with salt (50 mM NaCl), without or with 24-epibrassinolide (10−6 M) pre-treatment, and with two levels of P (10 or 1 ppm). The root system of LP-5 was larger in size and extent, while the roots of Perla were growing denser. Salt affected mainly the size- and extent-related root characteristics and explained about 70% of the variance. The effect of P was more pronounced without salt treatment. In Perla, P supply reduced the salt effect on root growth. The brassinosteroid had hardly any effect on the development of the plants in both experiments. Due to the high dependence on experimental factors, root length and related traits can be recommended for selecting young rice cultivars regarding salt stress and P deprivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Transgenerational Effects of Salt Stress Imposed to Rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera Del.) Plants Involve Greater Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in the Edible Sprouts Obtained from Offspring Seeds
Plants 2021, 10(5), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050932 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Previous research has demonstrated that rapeseed sprouts obtained under salinity demonstrate greater phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those sprouted with distilled water. This work aimed to test the hypothesis that these effects of salinity may persist into the next generation, so [...] Read more.
Previous research has demonstrated that rapeseed sprouts obtained under salinity demonstrate greater phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to those sprouted with distilled water. This work aimed to test the hypothesis that these effects of salinity may persist into the next generation, so that offspring seeds of plants grown under salt stress may give edible sprouts with increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Plants of one rapeseed cultivar were grown in pots with 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl, isolated from each other at flowering to prevent cross-pollination. Offspring seeds harvested from each salinity treatment were then sprouted with distilled water. We performed the extraction of free and bound phenolic fractions of sprouts and, in each fraction (methanolic extract), we determined the total polyphenols (P), flavonoids, (F), and tannins (T) with Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, the phenolic acids (PAs) by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographs (UHPLC) analysis, and the antioxidant activity with three tests (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate, DPPH; ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP; 2,2′-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt, ABTS). Individual seed weight was slightly decreased by salinity, whereas germination performance was improved, with a lower mean germination time for salted treatments. No significant differences were observed among treatments for P, F and T, except for bound P, while, in most cases, single PAs (as free, bound and total fractions) and antioxidant activity were significantly increased in salted treatments. Our results open new perspectives for the elicitation of secondary metabolites in the offspring seeds by growing parental plants under stressing conditions, imposed on purpose or naturally occurring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
Article
Phytostimulatory Influence of Comamonas testosteroni and Silver Nanoparticles on Linum usitatissimum L. under Salinity Stress
Plants 2021, 10(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040790 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
They were shifting in land use increases salinity stress, significant abiotic stress affecting plant growth, limiting crop productivity. This work aimed to improve Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) growth under salinity using Comamonas testosteroni and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs were fabricated exploiting Rosmarinus officinalis [...] Read more.
They were shifting in land use increases salinity stress, significant abiotic stress affecting plant growth, limiting crop productivity. This work aimed to improve Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) growth under salinity using Comamonas testosteroni and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs were fabricated exploiting Rosmarinus officinalis and monitored by U.V./Vis spectrophotometry scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants of linseed were investigated under salt stress in treated and untreated plants with C. testosteroni alongside AgNPs. Our findings recorded the formation of AgNPs at 457 nm, which were globular and with a diameter of 75 nm. Notably, chlorophyll-a, b, and total chlorophyll reduction while enhanced carotenoids and anthocyanin contents were attained under salinity stress. Total dissoluble sugars, proline, and dissoluble proteins, H2O2, malondialdehyde, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants were significantly elevated in NaCl well. Combined AgNPs and C. testosteroni elevated photosynthetic pigments. Also, they led to the mounting of soluble sugars, proline, and soluble proteins. H2O2 and malondialdehyde decreased while enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants increased in response to AgNPs, C. testosteroni, and their combination. Thus, AgNPs and C. testosteroni might bio-fertilizers to improve linseed crop productivity under salinity stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Early Growth Stage Characterization and the Biochemical Responses for Salinity Stress in Tomato
Plants 2021, 10(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040712 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Salinity is one of the most significant environmental stresses for sustainable crop production in major arable lands of the globe. Thus, we conducted experiments with 27 tomato genotypes to screen for salinity tolerance at seedling stage, which were treated with non-salinized (S1) control [...] Read more.
Salinity is one of the most significant environmental stresses for sustainable crop production in major arable lands of the globe. Thus, we conducted experiments with 27 tomato genotypes to screen for salinity tolerance at seedling stage, which were treated with non-salinized (S1) control (18.2 mM NaCl) and salinized (S2) (200 mM NaCl) irrigation water. In all genotypes, the elevated salinity treatment contributed to a major depression in morphological and physiological characteristics; however, a smaller decrease was found in certain tolerant genotypes. Principal component analyses (PCA) and clustering with percentage reduction in growth parameters and different salt tolerance indices classified the tomato accessions into five key clusters. In particular, the tolerant genotypes were assembled into one cluster. The growth and tolerance indices PCA also showed the order of salt-tolerance of the studied genotypes, where Saniora was the most tolerant genotype and P.Guyu was the most susceptible genotype. To investigate the possible biochemical basis for salt stress tolerance, we further characterized six tomato genotypes with varying levels of salinity tolerance. A higher increase in proline content, and antioxidants activities were observed for the salt-tolerant genotypes in comparison to the susceptible genotypes. Salt-tolerant genotypes identified in this work herald a promising source in the tomato improvement program or for grafting as scions with improved salinity tolerance in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Dose–Effect Relationship of Water Salinity Levels on Osmotic Regulators, Nutrient Uptake, and Growth of Transplanting Vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash]
Plants 2021, 10(3), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030562 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
Vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash] without seeds, suitable for growing on coastal saline land, has attracted attention because of oil extraction from its roots and industrial and agricultural use. In this study, a pot experiment with different NaCl contents was used [...] Read more.
Vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash] without seeds, suitable for growing on coastal saline land, has attracted attention because of oil extraction from its roots and industrial and agricultural use. In this study, a pot experiment with different NaCl contents was used to investigate the influence of water salinity levels on vetiver, salt tolerance, and the feasibility of transferring it to coastal saline regions. The results indicated that the fresh weight of roots and shoots increased initially and then gradually decreased with an increase in NaCl content, and the maximum was attributed to a water salinity of 0.3%. The vetiver can tolerate a maximum saline content of up to 2%. The promotion of vetiver growth under water salinity could be attributed to the acceleration of nutrient uptake-induced saline, including K, N, and Cl. The growth of vetiver was insignificantly inhibited with 0.5% water salinity (mild stress), significantly inhibited with 1.0% water salinity (moderate stress: biomass decrease), and severe inhibited with >1.5% water salinity (intense stress: biomass decrease). The salt tolerance of vetiver was due to osmotic regulation by reducing sugars under mild stress and of proline under intense stress, and Na+ sequestration in roots and the transformation of Cl away from sensitive roots. The vetiver could be cultivated in slightly coastal saline soil (0.1–0.2% soil salinity) and even moderately saline coastal soil (0.2–0.4% soil salinity) under irrigation with low salt water during transplanting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Marker–Trait Associations for Early Vegetative Stage Salinity Tolerance in Rice
Plants 2021, 10(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030559 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
Rice germplasm is a rich resource for discovering genes associated with salt tolerance. In the current study, a set of 96 accessions were evaluated for seedling stage salinity tolerance and its component traits. Significant phenotypic variation was observed among the genotypes for all [...] Read more.
Rice germplasm is a rich resource for discovering genes associated with salt tolerance. In the current study, a set of 96 accessions were evaluated for seedling stage salinity tolerance and its component traits. Significant phenotypic variation was observed among the genotypes for all the measured traits and eleven accessions with high level of salt tolerance at seedling stage were identified. The germplasm set comprised of three sub-populations and genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a total of 23 marker–trait associations (MTAs) for traits studied. These MTAs were located on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 12 and explained the trait phenotypic variances ranging from 13.98 to 29.88 %. Twenty-one MTAs identified in this study were located either in or near the previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTLs), while two MTAs namely, qSDW2.1 and qSNC5 were novel. A total of 18 and 13 putative annotated candidate genes were identified in a genomic region spanning ~200 kb around the MTAs qSDW2.1 and qSNC5, respectively. Some of the important genes underlying the novel MTAs were OsFBA1,OsFBL7, and mTERF which are known to be associated with salinity tolerance in crops. These MTAs pave way for combining salinity tolerance with high yield in rice genotypes through molecular breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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Article
Physiological Adaptation to Water Salinity in Six Wild Halophytes Suitable for Mediterranean Agriculture
Plants 2021, 10(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020309 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Owing to the high interspecific biodiversity, halophytes have been regarded as a tool for understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in plants in view of their adaptation to climate change. The present study addressed the physiological response to salinity of six halophyte species common in [...] Read more.
Owing to the high interspecific biodiversity, halophytes have been regarded as a tool for understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in plants in view of their adaptation to climate change. The present study addressed the physiological response to salinity of six halophyte species common in the Mediterranean area: Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex halimus, Chenopodium album, Salsola komarovii, and Sanguisorba minor. A 161-day pot experiment was conducted, watering the plants with solutions at increasing NaCl concentration (control, 100, 200, 300 and 600 mM). Fresh weight (FW), leaf stomatal conductance (GS), relative water content (RWC) and water potential (WP) were measured. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to describe the relationships involving the variables that accounted for data variance. A. halimus was shown to be the species most resilient to salinity, being able to maintain FW up to 300 mM, and RWC and WP up to 600 mM; it was followed by C. album. Compared to them, A. vulgaris and S. komarovii showed intermediate performances, achieving the highest FW (A. vulgaris) and GS (S. komarovii) under salinity. Lastly, S. minor and A. absinthium exhibited the most severe effects with a steep drop in GS and RWC. Lower WP values appeared to be associated with best halophyte performances under the highest salinity levels, i.e., 300 and 600 mM NaCl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Subjected to Salinity Stress)
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