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The Interplay among Polyamines and Nitrogen in Plant Stress Responses

Department of Agriculture, School of Agricultural Sciences, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Estavromenos, GR-71500 Heraklion, Greece
National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF), GR-71103 Heraklion, Greece
School of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Henan Province Engineering Research Center of Horticultural Plant Resource Utilization and Germplasm Enhancement, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
Department of Agriculture, University of the Peloponnese, GR-24100 Kalamata, Greece
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Andalas, Padang 25163, Indonesia
Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK
Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, GR-70013 Heraklion, Greece
Department of Biology, University of Crete, GR-70013 Heraklion, Greece
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(9), 315;
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
The interplay between polyamines (PAs) and nitrogen (N) is emerging as a key factor in plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. The PA/N interplay in plants connects N metabolism, carbon (C) fixation, and secondary metabolism pathways. Glutamate, a pivotal N-containing molecule, is responsible for the biosynthesis of proline (Pro), arginine (Arg) and ornithine (Orn) and constitutes a main common pathway for PAs and C/N assimilation/incorporation implicated in various stresses. PAs and their derivatives are important signaling molecules, as they act largely by protecting and preserving the function/structure of cells in response to stresses. Use of different research approaches, such as generation of transgenic plants with modified intracellular N and PA homeostasis, has helped to elucidate a plethora of PA roles, underpinning their function as a major player in plant stress responses. In this context, a range of transgenic plants over-or under-expressing N/PA metabolic genes has been developed in an effort to decipher their implication in stress signaling. The current review describes how N and PAs regulate plant growth and facilitate crop acclimatization to adverse environments in an attempt to further elucidate the N-PAs interplay against abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as the mechanisms controlling N-PA genes/enzymes and metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyamines; nitrogen metabolism; abiotic and biotic stress; hydrogen peroxide; antioxidant machinery polyamines; nitrogen metabolism; abiotic and biotic stress; hydrogen peroxide; antioxidant machinery
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Paschalidis, K.; Tsaniklidis, G.; Wang, B.-Q.; Delis, C.; Trantas, E.; Loulakakis, K.; Makky, M.; Sarris, P.F.; Ververidis, F.; Liu, J.-H. The Interplay among Polyamines and Nitrogen in Plant Stress Responses. Plants 2019, 8, 315.

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