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The Interplay among Polyamines and Nitrogen in Plant Stress Responses

1
Department of Agriculture, School of Agricultural Sciences, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Estavromenos, GR-71500 Heraklion, Greece
2
National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF), GR-71103 Heraklion, Greece
3
School of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Henan Province Engineering Research Center of Horticultural Plant Resource Utilization and Germplasm Enhancement, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
4
Department of Agriculture, University of the Peloponnese, GR-24100 Kalamata, Greece
5
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Andalas, Padang 25163, Indonesia
6
Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK
7
Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, GR-70013 Heraklion, Greece
8
Department of Biology, University of Crete, GR-70013 Heraklion, Greece
9
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(9), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090315
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
The interplay between polyamines (PAs) and nitrogen (N) is emerging as a key factor in plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. The PA/N interplay in plants connects N metabolism, carbon (C) fixation, and secondary metabolism pathways. Glutamate, a pivotal N-containing molecule, is responsible for the biosynthesis of proline (Pro), arginine (Arg) and ornithine (Orn) and constitutes a main common pathway for PAs and C/N assimilation/incorporation implicated in various stresses. PAs and their derivatives are important signaling molecules, as they act largely by protecting and preserving the function/structure of cells in response to stresses. Use of different research approaches, such as generation of transgenic plants with modified intracellular N and PA homeostasis, has helped to elucidate a plethora of PA roles, underpinning their function as a major player in plant stress responses. In this context, a range of transgenic plants over-or under-expressing N/PA metabolic genes has been developed in an effort to decipher their implication in stress signaling. The current review describes how N and PAs regulate plant growth and facilitate crop acclimatization to adverse environments in an attempt to further elucidate the N-PAs interplay against abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as the mechanisms controlling N-PA genes/enzymes and metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyamines; nitrogen metabolism; abiotic and biotic stress; hydrogen peroxide; antioxidant machinery polyamines; nitrogen metabolism; abiotic and biotic stress; hydrogen peroxide; antioxidant machinery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paschalidis, K.; Tsaniklidis, G.; Wang, B.-Q.; Delis, C.; Trantas, E.; Loulakakis, K.; Makky, M.; Sarris, P.F.; Ververidis, F.; Liu, J.-H. The Interplay among Polyamines and Nitrogen in Plant Stress Responses. Plants 2019, 8, 315.

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