Special Issue "Essential Oils Extraction Methods, Chemistry and Bioactivities: New Insights and Findings"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 9 October 2022 | Viewed by 2478

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rino Ragno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Rome Center for Molecular Design, Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Università di Roma, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
Interests: drug design; medicinal chemistry; machine learning for drug design; extraction of natural compounds; essential oils
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mijat Božović
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Džordža Vašingtona bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Interests: natural compounds; essential oils isolation and structure elucidation; factors affecting essential oil yield and composition; essential oil extraction methods; biological activities research into natural products; influence of secondary metabolites on ecological interactions; medicinal and aromatic plants; pharmacognosy, phytotherapy and ethnobotany

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a myriad of secondary metabolites derived and isolated from various plants. In most cases the biological role of these compounds is not really known. However, they represent a treasure trove of chemistry that can be of both interest and benefit to humans. Essential oils are aromatic, oily liquids extracted from different plant parts. They occur during secondary metabolism, and are normally formed in special cells or cell groups or in glandular hairs found on many leaves and stems. Chemically, a single volatile oil comprises of up to 200 different constituents of terpenoid and non-terpenoid origin, which are synthesized through different biosynthetic routes with distinct primary metabolic precursors. Terpenoids are extremely variable ingredients with different carbon skeletons and a wide variety of oxygenated derivatives; they have gained a particular importance in the synthesis of novel drugs. Phenylpropanoid derivatives are the other important constituent; they are a promising class of bioactive molecules. Essential oil composition varies considerably because of both intrinsic (sexual, seasonal, ontogenetic, and genetic variations) and extrinsic (environmental and ecological aspects) factors. Moreover, it changes in different plant organs and such polymorphisms can also be found between individual plants of a distinct species. Furthermore, the chemical composition depends on the stage of plant development. All these variations may result in the expression of different metabolic pathways, and consequently, quantitative and qualitative variations may occur, leading to the definition of new chemotypes.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews on essential oil extraction methods associated with chemistry and related bioactivities fields. The focus is on the variability of composition in relation to various factors, such as climatic or harvest time, nutritional status, or the isolation method used. New aspects of analysis, chemical characterization, and advancement in the extraction methods are of particular interest, as well as machine learning or artificial intelligence algorithm applications that study the composition–bioactivity correlation.

Dr. Rino Ragno
Dr. Mijat Božović
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • essential oil
  • chemotype
  • chemical analysis
  • extraction methods
  • bioactivities
  • terpenoids
  • phenylpropanoids
  • machine learning

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Photoprotective Agents Obtained from Aromatic Plants Grown in Colombia: Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Assessment of Cytotoxic Potential in Cancer Cell Lines of Cymbopogon flexuosus L. and Tagetes lucida Cav. Essential Oils
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131693 - 27 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Photoprotective agents obtained from plants provide benefits for the health of the skin. The present study aims to assess the total phenolic content (TPC) and in vitro UV-protective properties of twelve essential oils (EOs) from plants grown in Colombia and to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Photoprotective agents obtained from plants provide benefits for the health of the skin. The present study aims to assess the total phenolic content (TPC) and in vitro UV-protective properties of twelve essential oils (EOs) from plants grown in Colombia and to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of two species identified as photoprotective potentials: Cymbopogon flexuosus and Tagetes lucida. The composition of EOs was studied by GC/MS. The cytotoxicity of both EOs was examined using an MTT assay, and an H2-DCFDA probe was employed to estimate the intracellular production of ROS in HepG2 and Calu-1 cells. Major constituents (≥10%) were neral, geranial, geranyl acetate in C. flexuosus and estragole in T. lucida. The TPC for C. flexuosus and T. lucida EOs were ≥10 mg GAE/g byproduct. Both EOs showed photoprotective properties (SPFin vitro: 13–14), and long-wavelength UVA protection (λc > 370 nm). HepG2 and Calu-1 cells exposed to C. flexuosus exhibited antiproliferative activity (˂50%) at 125 µg/mL, while T. lucida was at 250 and 500 µg/mL. The IC50 values for C. flexuosus were 75 and 100 µg/mL in HepG2 and Calu-1 cells, respectively, whereas those for T. lucida were >250 µg/mL. These EOs achieved significant inhibitory effects (between 15.6 and 40.4%) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The results showed that EO compounds recognized as antioxidants could counteract the effects elicited by H2O2. Full article
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Article
Hydrodistillation and Microwave Extraction of Volatile Compounds: Comparing Data for Twenty-One Veronica Species from Different Habitats
Plants 2022, 11(7), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070902 - 28 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Free volatile compounds were isolated from 21 Croatian Veronica species studied by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave extraction (ME) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) distinguished some clusters based on the relative proportion of major compounds, such [...] Read more.
Free volatile compounds were isolated from 21 Croatian Veronica species studied by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave extraction (ME) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) distinguished some clusters based on the relative proportion of major compounds, such as hexadecanoic acid, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, phytol, E-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide, which were identified in all species studied by both isolation methods. In addition to these compounds, germacrene D, δ-selinene, and eicosane were also identified in five samples from dry habitats isolated using ME. Allo-aromadendrene and β-ionone are particularly abundant in five species from wet habitats isolated by both methods. The peculiarities of Veronica species from moderate habitats isolated with HD are benzene acetaldehyde, n-nonanal, and the identification of significant compounds from the hydrocarbon class, while the peculiarity of ME is (E)-β-damascenone. In this article, we present new results on the phytochemical characterization of Veronica species from different habitats. The biological potential of these compounds should be further investigated for a better understanding and utilization of the specialized plant metabolites. Full article
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Article
Foeniculum vulgare Miller, a New Chemotype from Montenegro
Plants 2022, 11(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010042 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Previous studies relating to prolonged and fractionated distillation procedures highlighted essential oils’ (EOs) chemical composition to be significantly dependent on the extraction duration and harvesting time. As a continuation, a hydrodistillation procedure was applied to ripe fruit material of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller [...] Read more.
Previous studies relating to prolonged and fractionated distillation procedures highlighted essential oils’ (EOs) chemical composition to be significantly dependent on the extraction duration and harvesting time. As a continuation, a hydrodistillation procedure was applied to ripe fruit material of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiaceae), collected from three localities in Montenegro (Podgorica, Nikšić, and Kotor) to furnish a total of 12 EOs. Liquid and vapor phases of the samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Headspace-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry techniques, and 18 compounds have been identified. Although both quantitative and qualitative differences between the samples were notable, the phenylpropanoids anethole (ANE) and estragole and the monoterpenoids α-terpineol (TER) and fenchone (FEN) could be singled out as the most abundant constituents. The EOs from Podgorica belong to the most common ANE-rich chemotype, while the predominance of the monoterpenoid fraction is characteristic of the samples from Nikšić and Kotor. The latter is particularly rich in TER (up to 56.5%), with significant amounts of FEN and ANE. This chemical profile could represent a new chemotype of fennel EO. Vapor phases contained mainly monoterpenoids, with increased amounts of FEN and TER, while the number of phenylpropanoids was significantly decreased. Full article
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