Plant Endomembranes Organization and Trafficking

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2020) | Viewed by 19555

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, LE, Italy
Interests: endomembrane trafficking; unconventional routes; metabolites and xenobiotics compartmentalization; biostimulation
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GreenUPorto - Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre/Inov4Agro – Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto - Rua do Campo Alegre, s/nº, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Interests: vacuolar sorting; vacuole biogenesis; sorting signals; endomembranes; trafficking; abiotic stress; plant specific insert
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Sciences of Food Production ISPA, Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy
Interests: plant secondary metabolisms (i.e. polyphenols) and new technologies (i.e. metabolic engineering, NGTs) to improve the polyphenols and other micronutrients content in tomato
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant endomembranes compose complex and dynamic systems of interconnected compartments. Trafficking of membrane components and soluble cargoes is vital, and at the basis of many aspects of plant cell biology: It is the key to maintaining cell homeostasis, the storage and degradation of proteins in vacuoles, and the secretion and deposition of plasma membrane and cell wall components. Several non-proteic macromolecules synthesis and quality control mechanisms (e.g., the ER glycoprotein folding quality control (ERQC) machinery or the unfolded protein response (UPR)) take place in the compartments and influence traffic. As a consequence, endomembrane trafficking is essential for plant growth, adaptation, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

Specific membrane fusion mechanisms are necessary. Both vesicular traffic and non-vesicular unconventional traffic occur in a finely regulated network of transport routes. Rabs, SNAREs, and tethering factors have emerged as keys of this traffic specificity, but many more transmembrane proteins such as proton pumps and aquaporins appear determinant to define compartments.

To translate the advanced knowledge acquired in specific model systems to the many aspects of plant cell physiology will open new opportunities to improve agricultural plant productivity and adaptation to the new threat of climate change.

Prof. Dr. Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano
Dr. Cláudia Sofia Pereira
Dr. Angelo Santino
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • ER quality control
  • Golgi
  • vacuole
  • plasma membrane
  • endosomes
  • autophagy
  • traffic
  • compartmentalization
  • stress response
  • plant defense
  • vesicles
  • vesicular traffic
  • secretion

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3185 KiB  
Article
Stay in Touch—The Cortical ER of Moss Protonemata in Osmotic Stress Situations
by Dominik Harant and Ingeborg Lang
Plants 2020, 9(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040421 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3529
Abstract
Plasmolysis is usually introduced to cell biology students as a tool to illustrate the plasma membrane: hypertonic solutions cause the living protoplast to shrink by osmotic water loss; hence, it detaches from the surrounding cell wall. What happens, however, with the subcellular structures [...] Read more.
Plasmolysis is usually introduced to cell biology students as a tool to illustrate the plasma membrane: hypertonic solutions cause the living protoplast to shrink by osmotic water loss; hence, it detaches from the surrounding cell wall. What happens, however, with the subcellular structures in the cell cortex during this process of turgor loss? Here, we investigated the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in moss protonema cells of Physcomitrella patens in a cell line carrying a transgenic ER marker (GFP-HDEL). The plasma membrane was labelled simultaneously with the fluorescent dye FM4-64 to achieve structural separation. By placing the protonemata in a hypertonic mannitol solution (0.8 M), we were able to follow the behaviour of the cortical ER and the protoplast during plasmolysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The protoplast shape and structural changes of the ER were further examined after depolymerisation of actin microfilaments with latrunculin B (1 µM). In its natural state, the cortical ER is a dynamic network of fine tubes and cisternae underneath the plasma membrane. Under acute and long-term plasmolysis (up to 45 min), changes in the protoplast form and the cortical ER, as well as the formation of Hechtian strands and Hechtian reticula, were observed. The processing of the high-resolution z-scans allowed the creation of 3D models and gave detailed insight into the ER of living protonema cells before, during and after plasmolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Endomembranes Organization and Trafficking)
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21 pages, 8376 KiB  
Article
N-Linked Glycosylation Modulates Golgi-Independent Vacuolar Sorting Mediated by the Plant Specific Insert
by Vanessa Vieira, Bruno Peixoto, Mónica Costa, Susana Pereira, José Pissarra and Cláudia Pereira
Plants 2019, 8(9), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090312 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4043
Abstract
In plant cells, the conventional route to the vacuole involves the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi and the prevacuolar compartment. However, over the years, unconventional sorting to the vacuole, bypassing the Golgi, has been described, which is the case of the Plant-Specific Insert (PSI) [...] Read more.
In plant cells, the conventional route to the vacuole involves the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi and the prevacuolar compartment. However, over the years, unconventional sorting to the vacuole, bypassing the Golgi, has been described, which is the case of the Plant-Specific Insert (PSI) of the aspartic proteinase cardosin A. Interestingly, this Golgi-bypass ability is not a characteristic shared by all PSIs, since two related PSIs showed to have different sensitivity to ER-to-Golgi blockage. Given the high sequence similarity between the PSI domains, we sought to depict the differences in terms of post-translational modifications. In fact, one feature that draws our attention is that one is N-glycosylated and the other one is not. Using site-directed mutagenesis to obtain mutated versions of the two PSIs, with and without the glycosylation motif, we observed that altering the glycosylation pattern interferes with the trafficking of the protein as the non-glycosylated PSI-B, unlike its native glycosylated form, is able to bypass ER-to-Golgi blockage and accumulate in the vacuole. This is also true when the PSI domain is analyzed in the context of the full-length cardosin. Regardless of opening exciting research gaps, the results obtained so far need a more comprehensive study of the mechanisms behind this unconventional direct sorting to the vacuole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Endomembranes Organization and Trafficking)
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Review

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14 pages, 329 KiB  
Review
Endomembrane Reorganization Induced by Heavy Metals
by Monica De Caroli, Antonella Furini, Giovanni DalCorso, Makarena Rojas and Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano
Plants 2020, 9(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040482 - 9 Apr 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 4213
Abstract
Plant cells maintain plasmatic concentrations of essential heavy metal ions, such as iron, zinc, and copper, within the optimal functional range. To do so, several molecular mechanisms have to be committed to maintain concentrations of non-essential heavy metals and metalloids, such as cadmium, [...] Read more.
Plant cells maintain plasmatic concentrations of essential heavy metal ions, such as iron, zinc, and copper, within the optimal functional range. To do so, several molecular mechanisms have to be committed to maintain concentrations of non-essential heavy metals and metalloids, such as cadmium, mercury and arsenic below their toxicity threshold levels. Compartmentalization is central to heavy metals homeostasis and secretory compartments, finely interconnected by traffic mechanisms, are determinant. Endomembrane reorganization can have unexpected effects on heavy metals tolerance altering in a complex way membrane permeability, storage, and detoxification ability beyond gene’s expression regulation. The full understanding of endomembrane role is propaedeutic to the comprehension of translocation and hyper-accumulation mechanisms and their applicative employment. It is evident that further studies on dynamic localization of these and many more proteins may significantly contribute to the understanding of heavy metals tolerance mechanisms. The aim of this review is to provide an overview about the endomembrane alterations involved in heavy metals compartmentalization and tolerance in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Endomembranes Organization and Trafficking)
18 pages, 1002 KiB  
Review
Plant Cells under Attack: Unconventional Endomembrane Trafficking during Plant Defense
by Guillermo Ruano and David Scheuring
Plants 2020, 9(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030389 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 7015
Abstract
Since plants lack specialized immune cells, each cell has to defend itself independently against a plethora of different pathogens. Therefore, successful plant defense strongly relies on precise and efficient regulation of intracellular processes in every single cell. Smooth trafficking within the plant endomembrane [...] Read more.
Since plants lack specialized immune cells, each cell has to defend itself independently against a plethora of different pathogens. Therefore, successful plant defense strongly relies on precise and efficient regulation of intracellular processes in every single cell. Smooth trafficking within the plant endomembrane is a prerequisite for a diverse set of immune responses. Pathogen recognition, signaling into the nucleus, cell wall enforcement, secretion of antimicrobial proteins and compounds, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species, all heavily depend on vesicle transport. In contrast, pathogens have developed a variety of different means to manipulate vesicle trafficking to prevent detection or to inhibit specific plant responses. Intriguingly, the plant endomembrane system exhibits remarkable plasticity upon pathogen attack. Unconventional trafficking pathways such as the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies or fusion of the vacuole with the plasma membrane are initiated and enforced as the counteraction. Here, we review the recent findings on unconventional and defense-induced trafficking pathways as the plant´s measures in response to pathogen attack. In addition, we describe the endomembrane system manipulations by different pathogens, with a focus on tethering and fusion events during vesicle trafficking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Endomembranes Organization and Trafficking)
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