Special Issue "Isolation and Analysis of Characteristic Compounds from Herbal and Plant Extracts"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jong Seong Kang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Yooseong-Ku, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
Interests: standardization of natural products; fingerprint analysis of herbal drugs; metabolic fate of herbal compounds
Dr. Narendra Singh Yadav
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge T1K 3M4, Alberta, Canada
Interests: plant stress biology; genetic and epigenetic regulation of abiotic stress response; transposable elements regulation; transgenerational stress memory; multi-generational stress effects; extremophytes; Salicornia; Arabidopsis; novel stress-responsive genes.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Herbal and plant extracts show diverse activities and have been used for centuries as natural medicines for many health problems and diseases. Through the isolation and analysis of the compounds in the extracts, it is possible to understand why the extracts exhibit those activities, as well as the chemical metabolism of compounds that occur in plants and herbs. Recently, there have been increasing attempts to develop herbal and plant extracts into functional foods and drugs, but the legal requirements are becoming stricter. We need sophisticatedly defined extracts through the isolation and analysis of compounds comprising them in order to meet the legal requirements and to pursue quality control strategies in the production of functional foods and drugs.
This Special Issue of Plants will highlight the isolation, profiling, and analysis of compounds in herbal and plant extracts, as well as quality control and standardized processing strategies for extracts with characteristic compounds.

Prof. Dr. Jong Seong Kang
Dr. Narendra Singh Yadav
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • isolation and analysis of compounds
  • herbal and plant extracts
  • quality control
  • functional foods
  • herbal drugs
  • profiling
  • standardized processing
  • characteristic compounds

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue Editorial: Isolation and Analysis of Characteristic Compounds from Herbal and Plant Extracts
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122775 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Herbal and plant extracts exhibit various types of properties and activities that have been applied in the medicinal field to treat diseases and achieve better health [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Metabolite Profiling and Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Activity of Coreopsis Cultivars in Different Mutations
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081661 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
Coreopsis species have been developed to produce cultivars of various floral colors and sizes and are also used in traditional medicine. To identify and evaluate mutant cultivars of C. rosea and C. verticillata, their phytochemical profiles were systematically characterized using [...] Read more.
Coreopsis species have been developed to produce cultivars of various floral colors and sizes and are also used in traditional medicine. To identify and evaluate mutant cultivars of C. rosea and C. verticillata, their phytochemical profiles were systematically characterized using ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and their anti-diabetic effects were evaluated using the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor screening assay. Forty compounds were tentatively identified. This study is the first to provide comprehensive chemical information on the anti-diabetic effect of C. rosea and C. verticillata. All 32 methanol extracts of Coreopsis cultivars inhibited DPP-IV activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 values: 34.01–158.83 μg/mL). Thirteen compounds presented as potential markers for distinction among the 32 Coreopsis cultivars via principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Therefore, these bio-chemometric models can be useful in distinguishing cultivars as potential dietary supplements for functional plants. Full article
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Article
A Novel Bioanalytical Method for Determination of Inotodiol Isolated from Inonotus Obliquus and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081631 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
In this study, we developed a bioanalytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to apply to a pharmacokinetic study of inotodiol, which is known for its anti-cancer activity. Plasma samples were prepared with alkaline hydrolysis, liquid–liquid extraction, [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a bioanalytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to apply to a pharmacokinetic study of inotodiol, which is known for its anti-cancer activity. Plasma samples were prepared with alkaline hydrolysis, liquid–liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction. Inotodiol was detected in positive mode with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization by multiple-reaction monitoring mode using LC-MS/MS. The developed method was validated with linearity, accuracy, and precision. Accuracy ranged from 97.8% to 111.9%, and the coefficient of variation for precision was 1.8% to 4.4%. The developed method was applied for pharmacokinetic study, and the mean pharmacokinetic parameters administration were calculated as follows: λz 0.016 min−1; T1/2 49.35 min; Cmax 2582 ng/mL; Cl 0.004 ng/min; AUC0–t 109,500 ng×min/mL; MRT0–t 32.30 min; Vd 0.281 mL after intravenous administration at dose of 2 mg/kg and λz 0.005 min−1; T1/2 138.6 min; Tmax 40 min; Cmax 49.56 ng/mL; AUC0–t 6176 ng×in/mL; MRT0–t 103.7 min after oral administration. The absolute oral bioavailability of inotodiol was 0.45%, similar to nonpolar phytosterols. Collectively, this is the first bioanalytical method and pharmacokinetic study for inotodiol. Full article
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Article
Determination of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) in Leaves of Italian or Italy-Adapted Cultivars of Mulberry (Morus sp.pl.) by HPLC-MS
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081553 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Recently, 1-DNJ has been widely studied by scientists for its capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase and reduce postprandial blood glucose and fat accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analytical determination of 1-DNJ in Morus sp.pl. leaves carried out on [...] Read more.
Recently, 1-DNJ has been widely studied by scientists for its capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase and reduce postprandial blood glucose and fat accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analytical determination of 1-DNJ in Morus sp.pl. leaves carried out on Italian crops, and it could be used as a reference to assess the quality of the plant material in comparison to Far Eastern Asia cultivations. The effects of two thermal treatments were compared to test the incidence of the drying process on the 1-DNJ extractability. In addition, two harvesting seasons in the same year (2017) and two subsequent harvesting years (2017–2018) were considered. The amount of 1-DNJ herein found was comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for Asian cultivations. The increase in 1-DNJ along the summer and the higher level of this compound in the apical leaves also complies with previous findings. However, a strong implication for the climatic conditions in the different years and a significant interaction between climate and genotypes suggest exploring very carefully the agronomic practices and selecting cultivars according to different environmental conditions with a view to standardize the 1-DNJ amount in leaves. Full article
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Article
Chemical and Biological Profiles of Dendrobium in Two Different Species, Their Hybrid, and Gamma-Irradiated Mutant Lines of the Hybrid Based on LC-QToF MS and Cytotoxicity Analysis
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071376 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
The Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) has been cultivated as an ornamental plant as well as used in traditional medicines. In this study, the chemical profiles of Dendrobii Herba, used as herbal medicine, Dendrobium in two different species, their hybrid, and the gamma-irradiated mutant lines [...] Read more.
The Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) has been cultivated as an ornamental plant as well as used in traditional medicines. In this study, the chemical profiles of Dendrobii Herba, used as herbal medicine, Dendrobium in two different species, their hybrid, and the gamma-irradiated mutant lines of the hybrid, were systematically investigated via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF MS). Among the numerous peaks detected, 17 peaks were unambiguously identified. Gigantol (1), (1R,2R)-1,7-hydroxy-2,8-methoxy-2,3-dihydrophenanthrene-4(1H)-one (2), tristin (3), (−)-syringaresinol (4), lusianthridin (5), 2,7-dihydroxy-phenanthrene-1,4-dione (6), densiflorol B (7), denthyrsinin (8), moscatilin (9), lusianthridin dimer (10), batatasin III (11), ephemeranthol A (12), thunalbene (13), dehydroorchinol (14), dendrobine (15), shihunine (16), and 1,5,7-trimethoxy-2-phenanthrenol (17), were detected in Dendrobii Herba, while 1, 2, and 16 were detected in D. candidum, 1, 11, and 16 in D. nobile, and 1, 2, and 16 in the hybrid, D. nobile × candidum. The methanol extract taken of them was also examined for cytotoxicity against FaDu human hypopharynx squamous carcinoma cells, where Dendrobii Herba showed the greatest cytotoxicity. In the untargeted metabolite analysis of 436 mutant lines of the hybrid, using UPLC-QToF MS and cytotoxicity measurements combined with multivariate analysis, two tentative flavonoids (M1 and M2) were evaluated as key markers among the analyzed metabolites, contributing to the distinction between active and inactive mutant lines. Full article
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Communication
Phytochemical Analysis of the Fruits of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides): Identification of Organic Acid Derivatives
Plants 2021, 10(5), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050860 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as “Sea buckthorn” and “Vitamin tree”, is a spiny deciduous shrub whose fruit is known for its nutritional composition, such as vitamin C, and is consumed as a dietary supplement worldwide. As part of our ongoing efforts [...] Read more.
Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as “Sea buckthorn” and “Vitamin tree”, is a spiny deciduous shrub whose fruit is known for its nutritional composition, such as vitamin C, and is consumed as a dietary supplement worldwide. As part of our ongoing efforts to identify structurally new and bioactive constituents from natural resources, the phytochemical investigation of the extract of H. rhamnoides fruits led to the isolation of one malate derivative (1), five citrate derivatives (2–6), and one quinate derivative (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data and high-resolution electrospray ionization (HR-ESI) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS) data. Three of the citrate derivatives were identified as new compounds: (S)-1-butyl-5-methyl citrate (3), (S)-1-butyl-1′-methyl citrate (4), and (S)-1-methyl-1′-butyl citrate (6), which turned out to be isolation artifacts. The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established by quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation, which is an informative tool for verifying the absolute configuration of organic acid derivatives. The isolated compounds 1–7 were evaluated for their stimulatory effects on osteogenesis. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 stimulated osteogenic differentiation up to 1.4 fold, compared to the negative control. These findings provide experimental evidence that active compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 induce the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells and activate bone formation. Full article
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Article
Differences in the Inhibitory Specificity Distinguish the Efficacy of Plant Protease Inhibitors on Mouse Fibrosarcoma
Plants 2021, 10(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030602 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
Metastasis, the primary cause of death from malignant tumors, is facilitated by multiple protease-mediated processes. Thus, effort has been invested in the development of protease inhibitors to prevent metastasis. Here, we investigated the effects of protease inhibitors including the recombinant inhibitors rBbKI (serine [...] Read more.
Metastasis, the primary cause of death from malignant tumors, is facilitated by multiple protease-mediated processes. Thus, effort has been invested in the development of protease inhibitors to prevent metastasis. Here, we investigated the effects of protease inhibitors including the recombinant inhibitors rBbKI (serine protease inhibitor) and rBbCI (serine and cysteine inhibitor) derived from native inhibitors identified in Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds, and EcTI (serine and metalloprotease inhibitor) isolated from the seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum on the mouse fibrosarcoma model (lineage L929). rBbKI inhibited 80% of cell viability of L929 cells after 48 h, while EcTI showed similar efficacy after 72 h. Both inhibitors acted in a dose and time-dependent manner. Conversely, rBbCI did not significantly affect the viability of L929 cells. Confocal microscopy revealed the binding of rBbKI and EcTI to the L929 cell surface. rBbKI inhibited approximately 63% of L929 adhesion to fibronectin, in contrast with EcTI and rBbCI, which did not significantly interfere with adhesion. None of the inhibitors interfered with the L929 cell cycle phases. The synthetic peptide RPGLPVRFESPL-NH2, based on the BbKI reactive site, inhibited 45% of the cellular viability of L929, becoming a promising protease inhibitor due to its ease of synthesis. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Processing of Floral Bio-Residues of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for Valuable Biorefinery Products
Plants 2021, 10(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030523 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Tepals constitute the most abundant bio-residues of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). As they are a natural source of polyphenols with antioxidant properties, they could be processed to generate valuable biorefinery products for applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, becoming a [...] Read more.
Tepals constitute the most abundant bio-residues of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). As they are a natural source of polyphenols with antioxidant properties, they could be processed to generate valuable biorefinery products for applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, becoming a new source of income while reducing bio-waste. Proper storage of by-products is important in biorefining and dehydration is widely used in the herb sector, especially for highly perishable harvested flowers. This study aimed to deepen the phytochemical composition of dried saffron tepals and to investigate whether this was influenced by the extraction technique. In particular, the conventional maceration was compared with the Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE), using different solvents (water and three methanol concentrations, i.e., 20%, 50%, and 80%). Compared to the spice, the dried saffron tepals showed a lower content of total phenolics (average value 1127.94 ± 32.34 mg GAE 100 g−1 DW) and anthocyanins (up to 413.30 ± 137.16 mg G3G 100 g−1 DW), but a higher antioxidant activity, which was measured through the FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays. The HPLC-DAD analysis detected some phenolic compounds (i.e., ferulic acid, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin) not previously found in fresh saffron tepals. Vitamin C, already discovered in the spice, was interestingly detected also in dried tepals. Regarding the extraction technique, in most cases, UAE with safer solvents (i.e., water or low percentage of methanol) showed results of phenolic compounds and vitamin C similar to maceration, allowing an improvement in extractions by halving the time. Thus, this study demonstrated that saffron tepals can be dried maintaining their quality and that green extractions can be adopted to obtain high yields of valuable antioxidant phytochemicals, meeting the requirement for a sustainable biorefining. Full article
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Article
Dibenzocyclooctadiene Lignans in Plant Parts and Fermented Beverages of Schisandra chinensis
Plants 2021, 10(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020361 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
The fruit of Schisandra chinensis, Omija, is a well-known traditional medicine used as an anti-tussive and anti-diarrhea agent, with various biological activities derived from the dibenzocyclooctadiene-type lignans. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was used to determine seven lignans (schisandrol [...] Read more.
The fruit of Schisandra chinensis, Omija, is a well-known traditional medicine used as an anti-tussive and anti-diarrhea agent, with various biological activities derived from the dibenzocyclooctadiene-type lignans. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was used to determine seven lignans (schisandrol A and B, tigloylgomisin H, angeloylgomisin H, schisandrin A, B, and C) in the different plant parts and beverages of the fruit of S. chinensis grown in Korea. The contents of these lignans in the plant parts descended in the following order: seeds, flowers, leaves, pulp, and stems. The total lignan content in Omija beverages fermented with white sugar for 12 months increased by 2.6-fold. Omija was fermented for 12 months with white sugar, brown sugar, and oligosaccharide/white sugar (1:1, w/w). The total lignan content in Omija fermented with oligosaccharide/white sugar was approximately 1.2- and 1.7-fold higher than those fermented with white sugar and brown sugar, respectively. A drink prepared by immersion of the fruit in alcohol had a higher total lignan content than these fermented beverages. This is the first report documenting the quantitative changes in dibenzocyclooctadiene-type lignans over a fermentation period and the effects of the fermentable sugars on this eco-friendly fermentation process. Full article
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Article
Fatty Acid Derivatives Isolated from the Oil of Persea americana (Avocado) Protects against Neomycin-Induced Hair Cell Damage
Plants 2021, 10(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010171 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Avocado oil is beneficial to human health and has been reported to have beneficial effects on sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the compounds in avocado oil that affect SNHL have not been identified. In this study, we identified 20 compounds from avocado oil, [...] Read more.
Avocado oil is beneficial to human health and has been reported to have beneficial effects on sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the compounds in avocado oil that affect SNHL have not been identified. In this study, we identified 20 compounds from avocado oil, including two new and 18 known fatty acid derivatives, using extensive spectroscopic analysis. The efficacy of the isolated compounds for improving SNHL was investigated in an ototoxic zebrafish model. The two new compounds, namely (2R,4R,6Z)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadec-6-ene and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadecadi-14,16-ene (compounds 1 and 2), as well as compounds 7, 9, 14, 17 and 19 showed significant improvement in damaged hair cells in toxic zebrafish. These results led to the conclusion that compounds from avocado oil as well as oil itself have a regenerative effect on damaged otic hair cells in ototoxic zebrafish. Full article
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Article
Phytochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Biological Activities of Extracts from Three Clauseneae Plants in Northern Thailand
Plants 2021, 10(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010117 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
This study established the DNA barcoding sequences (matK and rbcL) of three plant species identified in the tribe Clauseneae, namely Clausena excavata, C. harmandiana and Murraya koenigii. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, together with the biological [...] Read more.
This study established the DNA barcoding sequences (matK and rbcL) of three plant species identified in the tribe Clauseneae, namely Clausena excavata, C. harmandiana and Murraya koenigii. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, together with the biological activities of the derived essential oils and methanol extracts, were also investigated. Herein, the success of obtaining sequences of these plant using two different barcode genes matK and rbcL were 62.5% and 100%, respectively. Both regions were discriminated by around 700 base pairs and these had resemblance with those of the Clausenae materials earlier deposited in Genbank at a 99–100% degree of identity. Additionally, the use of matK DNA sequences could positively confirm the identity as monophyletic. The highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content values (p < 0.05) were observed in the methanol extract of M. koenigii at 43.50 mg GAE/g extract and 66.13 mg QE/g extract, respectively. Furthermore, anethole was detected as the dominant compound in C. excavata (86.72%) and C. harmandiana (46.09%). Moreover, anethole (26.02%) and caryophyllene (21.15%) were identified as the major phytochemical compounds of M. koenigii. In terms of the biological properties, the M. koenigii methanol extract was found to display the greatest amount of antioxidant activity (DPPH; IC50 95.54 µg/mL, ABTS value 118.12 mg GAE/g extract, FRAP value 48.15 mg GAE/g extract), and also revealed the highest α-glucosidase and antihypertensive inhibitory activities with percent inhibition values of 84.55 and 84.95. Notably, no adverse effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed with regard to all of the plant extracts. Furthermore, M. koenigii methanol extract exhibited promise against human lung cancer cells almost at 80% after 24 h and 90% over 48 h. Full article
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Article
Vasorelaxant Effect of Boesenbergia rotunda and Its Active Ingredients on an Isolated Coronary Artery
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121688 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death in developed countries. The regulation of vascular tone is a major approach to prevent and ameliorate vascular diseases. As part of our ongoing screening for cardioprotective natural compounds, we investigated the vasorelaxant effect of rhizomes [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death in developed countries. The regulation of vascular tone is a major approach to prevent and ameliorate vascular diseases. As part of our ongoing screening for cardioprotective natural compounds, we investigated the vasorelaxant effect of rhizomes from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. [Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr.] used as a spice and herbal medicine in Asian countries. The methanol extract of B. rotunda rhizomes (BRE) exhibited significant vasorelaxation effects ex vivo at EC50 values of 13.4 ± 6.1 μg/mL and 40.9 ± 7.9 μg/mL, respectively, with and without endothelium in the porcine coronary artery ring. The intrinsic mechanism was evaluated by treating with specific inhibitors or activators that typically affect vascular reactivity. The results suggested that BRE induced relaxation in the coronary artery rings via an endothelium-dependent pathway involving NO-cGMP, and also via an endothelium-independent pathway involving the blockade of Ca2+ channels. Vasorelaxant principles in BRE were identified by subsequent chromatographic methods, which revealed that flavonoids regulate vasorelaxant activity in BRE. One of the flavonoids was a Diels-Alder type adduct, 4-hydroxypanduratin A, which showed the most potent vasorelaxant effect on porcine coronary artery with an EC50 of 17.8 ± 2.5 μM. Our results suggest that rhizomes of B. rotunda might be of interest as herbal medicine against cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Antiwrinkle Activity of Enriched Isatidis Folium Extract and an HPLC–UV Method for the Quality Control of Its Cream Products
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111586 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Currently, many extracts from natural sources are added to cosmetic products for reducing facial aging and wrinkles. This study investigated the antiwrinkle activity of enriched extract of Isatidis Folium used for a novel antiwrinkle cream product. The result demonstrated that this enriched extract [...] Read more.
Currently, many extracts from natural sources are added to cosmetic products for reducing facial aging and wrinkles. This study investigated the antiwrinkle activity of enriched extract of Isatidis Folium used for a novel antiwrinkle cream product. The result demonstrated that this enriched extract has excellent antiwrinkle activity by significantly inhibiting mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and upregulating the mRNA expression of IL-4 and procollagen. Additionally, to implement effective quality control of the entire manufacturing process of antiwrinkle cream products based on the enriched extract of Isatidis Folium, the main chemical constituents of the enriched extract of Isatidis Folium was evaluated by high–performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS), five constituents were undisputedly confirmed. An HPLC-UV method in 15-min analysis time for quality assessment of the entire manufacturing process of antiwrinkle cream products was proposed and validated. The optimal conditions for extracting TMCA (3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid) from the developed antiwrinkle cream products were determined using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The established HPLC method and optimal extract condition are suitable for routinely analyzing this novel antiwrinkle cream product. Full article
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Article
Bioactive Compounds from Polygala tenuifolia and Their Inhibitory Effects on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091240 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
The roots of Polygala tenuifolia Wild (Polygalaceae), which is among the most important components of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been widely used for over 1000 years to treat a variety of diseases. In the current investigation of secondary metabolites with anti-inflammatory properties [...] Read more.
The roots of Polygala tenuifolia Wild (Polygalaceae), which is among the most important components of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been widely used for over 1000 years to treat a variety of diseases. In the current investigation of secondary metabolites with anti-inflammatory properties from Korean medicinal plants, a phytochemical constituent study led to the isolation of 15 compounds (115) from the roots of P. tenuifolia via a combination of chromatographic methods. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic data such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 1D- and 2D-NMR, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). As the obtained results, the isolated compounds were divided into two groups—phenolic glycosides (19) and triterpenoid saponins (1015). The anti-inflammatory effects of crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were investigated on the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The IC50 values, ranging from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 21.05 ± 0.40 μM, indicated potent inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on the production of all three pro-inflammatory cytokines. In particular, compounds 312, 14, and 15 showed promising anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that phenolic and triterpenoid saponins from P. tenuifolia may be excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Review

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Review
Plants Metabolome Study: Emerging Tools and Techniques
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112409 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
Metabolomics is now considered a wide-ranging, sensitive and practical approach to acquire useful information on the composition of a metabolite pool present in any organism, including plants. Investigating metabolomic regulation in plants is essential to understand their adaptation, acclimation and defense responses to [...] Read more.
Metabolomics is now considered a wide-ranging, sensitive and practical approach to acquire useful information on the composition of a metabolite pool present in any organism, including plants. Investigating metabolomic regulation in plants is essential to understand their adaptation, acclimation and defense responses to environmental stresses through the production of numerous metabolites. Moreover, metabolomics can be easily applied for the phenotyping of plants; and thus, it has great potential to be used in genome editing programs to develop superior next-generation crops. This review describes the recent analytical tools and techniques available to study plants metabolome, along with their significance of sample preparation using targeted and non-targeted methods. Advanced analytical tools, like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectroscopy (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have speed up precise metabolic profiling in plants. Further, we provide a complete overview of bioinformatics tools and plant metabolome database that can be utilized to advance our knowledge to plant biology. Full article
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Review
Systematics, Phytochemistry, Biological Activities and Health Promoting Effects of the Plants from the Subfamily Bombacoideae (Family Malvaceae)
Plants 2021, 10(4), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040651 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Plants belonging to the subfamily Bombacoideae (family Malvaceae) consist of about 304 species, many of them having high economical and medicinal properties. In the past, this plant group was put under Bombacaceae; however, modern molecular and phytochemical findings supported the group as a [...] Read more.
Plants belonging to the subfamily Bombacoideae (family Malvaceae) consist of about 304 species, many of them having high economical and medicinal properties. In the past, this plant group was put under Bombacaceae; however, modern molecular and phytochemical findings supported the group as a subfamily of Malvaceae. A detailed search on the number of publications related to the Bombacoideae subfamily was carried out in databases like PubMed and Science Direct using various keywords. Most of the plants in the group are perennial tall trees usually with swollen tree trunks, brightly colored flowers, and large branches. Various plant parts ranging from leaves to seeds to stems of several species are also used as food and fibers in many countries. Members of Bombacoides are used as ornamentals and economic utilities, various plants are used in traditional medication systems for their anti-inflammatory, astringent, stimulant, antipyretic, microbial, analgesic, and diuretic effects. Several phytochemicals, both polar and non-polar compounds, have been detected in this plant group supporting evidence of their medicinal and nutritional uses. The present review provides comprehensive taxonomic, ethno-pharmacological, economic, food and phytochemical properties of the subfamily Bombacoideae. Full article
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