Developmental and Environmental Control of Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings: Towards Understanding of Underlying Principles

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Development and Morphogenesis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 11735

Special Issue Editors

Erfurt Research Centre for Horticultural Crops, University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, 99090 Erfurt, Germany
Interests: adventitious root formation; developmental processes; horticultural plant; ornamental crops; plant physiology; plant biochemistry; molecular biology; carbohydrate metabolism; plant hormones

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Guest Editor
Center for Biotechnology and Department of Botany, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS, Brazil
Interests: tree physiology; adventitious rooting; plant secondary metabolism; terpenes; alkaloids; plant biotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focusses on recent experimental work and concepts towards the understanding of the action of critical factors at stock plant and cutting level that modify adventitious root formation in cuttings. In addition to plant genetics, several other factors, such as stock plant maturation, cutting position (topophysis) within the stock plant, plant nutrition, light/dark exposure, temperature, abiotic stress factors, and beneficial microorganisms modify the rooting of cuttings. Even though fundamental research on model plants has widened our understanding of the main processes that underly the reprogramming of source cells and subsequent differentiation and growth of adventitious roots, the way that the different non-genetic factors act on adventitious root formation of the diverse plant species is far from understood. Filling this gap of knowledge is necessary to improve our general understanding of the development and plasticity of plants and to further enhance the options for growers, thus reducing losses and fine-tuning propagation systems towards more efficient and sustainable protocols.

In this Special Issue, manuscripts that address the impact of various factors at stock plant and cutting level on adventitious rooting of cuttings and examine the underlying factors and processes are invited. In this context, we encourage contributions that consider the involvement of molecular factors, plant hormones, cellular processes, and primary and secondary metabolism. Papers investigating key processes taking place both at the rooting zone and at the upper parts of cuttings in response to the factors under consideration are welcome. Reports of in vitro studies are also within scope if they contribute to the understanding of developmental and/or environmental control of adventitious rooting.

Dr. Uwe Druege
Prof. Dr. Arthur G Fett-Neto
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • root development
  • propagation
  • phytohormones
  • gene expression
  • gene function
  • protein
  • primary metabolism
  • secondary metabolism
  • maturation
  • topophysis
  • light
  • dark
  • etiolation
  • nutrition
  • temperature
  • abiotic stress
  • microorganisms
  • model plants
  • translational research

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2374 KiB  
Article
Grafting Causes Physiological Changes and Promotes Adventitious Root Formation in Rejuvenated Soft Shoots of Taxodium hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan’
by Zhiquan Wang, Qin Shi, Peipei Chen, Feng Sun, David Creech, Zhiguo Lu, Yunlong Yin and Chaoguang Yu
Plants 2023, 12(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010201 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Taxodium hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan’ has been widely used as a timber tree in river network areas and coastal regions and is mainly propagated by cuttings. However, when trees age, their capacity to form adventitious roots becomes weaker. We successfully enhanced the rooting ability of [...] Read more.
Taxodium hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan’ has been widely used as a timber tree in river network areas and coastal regions and is mainly propagated by cuttings. However, when trees age, their capacity to form adventitious roots becomes weaker. We successfully enhanced the rooting ability of shoots in T. hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan 302’ by their rejuvenation based on grafting. We recorded temporal variation in endogenous auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellins (GAs), trans-zeatin-riboside (TZR), soluble sugar and H2O2 after root induction. Auxin, soluble sugars and H2O2 levels were higher in rejuvenated shoots than in mature shoots, whereas the opposite was true for ABA and GAs. Notably, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and GA3 presented higher contents with more obvious differences in T. hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan 302’ rejuvenated shoots vs. mature shoots compared with other kinds of auxin and GAs. The evident improvement in the rooting ability of rejuvenated shoots after grafting likely resulted from the differential regulation of plant hormones, carbohydrates and redox signaling. In addition to the physiological basis of improved rooting ability by grafting, this study provided a theoretical basis for the optimization of subsequent propagation techniques in T. hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan’ and potentially other Taxodium spp. Full article
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25 pages, 3888 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Dynamics of Rooting Zone and Leaves during In Vitro Adventitious Root Formation in Eucalyptus nitens
by Paula G. Ayala, Raúl M. Acevedo, Claudia V. Luna, Máximo Rivarola, Cintia Acuña, Susana Marcucci Poltri, Ana M. González and Pedro A. Sansberro
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3301; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233301 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Wood properties and agronomic traits associated with fast growth and frost tolerance make Eucalyptus nitens a valuable forest alternative. However, the rapid age-related decline in the adventitious root (AR) formation (herein, meaning induction, initiation, and expression stages) limits its propagation. We analyzed transcriptomic [...] Read more.
Wood properties and agronomic traits associated with fast growth and frost tolerance make Eucalyptus nitens a valuable forest alternative. However, the rapid age-related decline in the adventitious root (AR) formation (herein, meaning induction, initiation, and expression stages) limits its propagation. We analyzed transcriptomic profile variation in leaves and stem bases during AR induction of microcuttings to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in AR formation. In addition, we quantified expressions of candidate genes associated with recalcitrance. We delimited the ontogenic phases of root formation using histological techniques and Scarecrow and Short-Root expression quantification for RNA sequencing sample collection. We quantified the gene expressions associated with root meristem formation, auxin biosynthesis, perception, signaling, conjugation, and cytokinin signaling in shoots harvested from 2- to 36-month-old plants. After IBA treatment, 702 transcripts changed their expressions. Several were involved in hormone homeostasis and the signaling pathways that determine cell dedifferentiation, leading to root meristem formation. In part, the age-related decline in the rooting capacity is attributable to the increase in the ARR1 gene expression, which negatively affects auxin homeostasis. The analysis of the transcriptomic variation in the leaves and rooting zones provided profuse information: (1) To elucidate the auxin metabolism; (2) to understand the hormonal and signaling processes involved; (3) to collect data associated with their recalcitrance. Full article
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23 pages, 4205 KiB  
Article
Environmental Modulation of Mini-Clonal Gardens for Cutting Production and Propagation of Hard- and Easy-to-Root Eucalyptus spp
by Johnatan Vilasboa, Cibele T. Da Costa and Arthur G. Fett-Neto
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233281 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Clonal Eucalyptus propagation is essential for various industry sectors. It requires cuttings to successfully develop adventitious roots (ARs). Environmental conditions are influential on AR development and may be altered to modulate the productivity of hard-to-root clones. The current knowledge gap in research on [...] Read more.
Clonal Eucalyptus propagation is essential for various industry sectors. It requires cuttings to successfully develop adventitious roots (ARs). Environmental conditions are influential on AR development and may be altered to modulate the productivity of hard-to-root clones. The current knowledge gap in research on the physiological patterns underlying commercial-scale propagation results hinders the design of novel strategies. This study aimed to identify patterns of variation in AR-relevant parameters in contrasting seasons and species with distinct rooting performances. E. dunnii and E. ×urograndis (hard- (hardR) and easy-to-root (easyR), respectively) mini-stumps were subjected to light modulation treatments and to mini-tunnel use (MT) for a year. The treatment impact on the branching and rooting rates was recorded. The carbohydrate content, AR-related gene expression, and mineral nutrition profiles of cuttings from the control (Ctrl) and treated mini-stumps were analyzed. Light treatments were often detrimental to overall productivity, while MTs had a positive effect during summer, when it altered the cutting leaf nutrient profiles. Species and seasonality played large roles in all the assessed parameters. E. ×urograndis was particularly susceptible to seasonality, and its overall superior performance correlated with changes in its gene expression profile from excision to AR formation. These patterns indicate fundamental differences between easyR and hardR clones that contribute to the design of data-driven management strategies aiming to enhance propagation protocols. Full article
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19 pages, 3109 KiB  
Article
Biochemical and Physiological Changes during Early Adventitious Root Formation in Chrysanthemum indicum Linné Cuttings
by Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Seung-Hyun Kim, Chang-Yeon Yu and Ill-Min Chung
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111440 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Chrysanthemum indicum is an important ornamental and medicinal plant that is often difficult to propagate commercially because of its poor germination and low seed viability. This plant is mostly propagated by cutting, but the rooting is slow and non-uniform. The present investigation evaluated [...] Read more.
Chrysanthemum indicum is an important ornamental and medicinal plant that is often difficult to propagate commercially because of its poor germination and low seed viability. This plant is mostly propagated by cutting, but the rooting is slow and non-uniform. The present investigation evaluated the regeneration capacity of stem cutting by examining the influence of auxins, growth medium, temperature, and explant type on adventitious root formation in C. indicum. The auxin-treated cuttings were planted in different growth substrates under greenhouse conditions. Among the different auxins tested, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) more effectively induced roots. The cutting position of stock plants influenced rooting capacity. Cutting the stock plants from the apical region enhanced root number and length in the explants. Among the different explant types, apical stem cuts with 2000 ppm IBA produced a significantly higher number of adventitious roots when grown in vermiculite and perlite (V + P) at a ratio of 1:1 at 25 °C. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, biochanin A, salicylic acid, caffeic acid, glycitein, and luteolin were the most dominant phenolic compounds present in C. indicum. These results indicate that IBA treatment promoted the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds in C. indicum stem cuttings at the time of root formation. The present results demonstrate that applying auxins is essential for early root initiation and higher rooting success and thus may be beneficial for vegetative C. indicum propagation. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 1566 KiB  
Review
New Paradigms in Brassinosteroids, Strigolactones, Sphingolipids, and Nitric Oxide Interaction in the Control of Lateral and Adventitious Root Formation
by Maria Maddalena Altamura, Diego Piacentini, Federica Della Rovere, Laura Fattorini, Giuseppina Falasca and Camilla Betti
Plants 2023, 12(2), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020413 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2858
Abstract
The root system is formed by the primary root (PR), which forms lateral roots (LRs) and, in some cases, adventitious roots (ARs), which in turn may produce their own LRs. The formation of ARs is also essential for vegetative propagation in planta and [...] Read more.
The root system is formed by the primary root (PR), which forms lateral roots (LRs) and, in some cases, adventitious roots (ARs), which in turn may produce their own LRs. The formation of ARs is also essential for vegetative propagation in planta and in vitro and for breeding programs. Root formation and branching is coordinated by a complex developmental network, which maximizes the plant’s ability to cope with abiotic stress. Rooting is also a response caused in a cutting by wounding and disconnection from the donor plant. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid molecules perceived at the cell surface. They act as plant-growth-regulators (PGRs) and modulate plant development to provide stress tolerance. BRs and auxins control the formation of LRs and ARs. The auxin/BR interaction involves other PGRs and compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO), strigolactones (SLs), and sphingolipids (SPLs). The roles of these interactions in root formation and plasticity are still to be discovered. SLs are carotenoid derived PGRs. SLs enhance/reduce LR/AR formation depending on species and culture conditions. These PGRs possibly crosstalk with BRs. SPLs form domains with sterols within cellular membranes. Both SLs and SPLs participate in plant development and stress responses. SPLs are determinant for auxin cell-trafficking, which is essential for the formation of LRs/ARs in planta and in in vitro systems. Although little is known about the transport, trafficking, and signaling of SPLs, they seem to interact with BRs and SLs in regulating root-system growth. Here, we review the literature on BRs as modulators of LR and AR formation, as well as their crosstalk with SLs and SPLs through NO signaling. Knowledge on the control of rooting by these non-classical PGRs can help in improving crop productivity and enhancing AR-response from cuttings. Full article
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