Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 26716

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

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Assistant Guest Editor
Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Lithuania
Interests: plant extracts; CO2 extraction; biocontrol

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Horticulture, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research–NIBIO Ullensvang, Ulensvangvegen 1005, NO-5781 Lofthus, Norway
2. Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Lithuania
Interests: crop load management; fruit tree rootstocks; fruit quality; planting systems; pomology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental science researchers are focusing on solutions for environment protection, sustainable agriculture, horticulture and forestry, reduction in greenhouse gas emission and other environmental issues in the context of the changing climate. Their aim is to ensure a safe environment and to guarantee healthy and safe food and non-food products. The 17th International Conference of Young Scientists on Energy and Natural Sciences Issues (CYSENI 2021), taking place between the dates 24–28 May, 2021 represents various environmental science fields: innovative agriculture, horticulture, and forestry solutions; toxic-free environment; sustainable pest management; food sciences and technologies; plant biology and physiology; plant genetics and breeding. This Special Issue will comprise selected papers from the Environmental Sciences section of the CYSENI 2021. Conference attendees and their co-authors are encouraged to submit original research and review articles related to the topics covered in CYSENI 2021.

Dr. Giedrė Samuolienė
Dr. Neringa Rasiukeviciute
Ms. Lina Šernaitė
Dr. Darius Kviklys
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • selected papers from CYSENI 2021
  • sustainable agriculture
  • sustainable horticulture
  • sustainable forestry
  • toxic-free environment
  • sustainable pest management
  • food sciences
  • food technologies
  • plant biology
  • plant physiology
  • plant genetics
  • plant breeding

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 4312 KiB  
Article
Putative Genes of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Coronatine-Insensitive Protein 1 in Ribes spp.
by Ana Dovilė Juškytė, Ingrida Mažeikienė and Vidmantas Stanys
Plants 2022, 11(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030355 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
In response to pathogen attacks, plants activate a complex of defense mechanisms including an accumulation of the endogenous signaling compounds salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The activity of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and coronatine-insensitive 1 (COI1) in defense-response pathways are [...] Read more.
In response to pathogen attacks, plants activate a complex of defense mechanisms including an accumulation of the endogenous signaling compounds salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The activity of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and coronatine-insensitive 1 (COI1) in defense-response pathways are established in plants. The aim of this study was to identify homologs of the PRs and COI1 in blackcurrants. Primers with degenerate nucleotides were designed based on the most conservative parts of PR1 and COI1 genes from other plants and applied for amplification of specific fragments of PRs and COI1 in Ribes spp. Seven heterogeneous sequences of PR with a diversity of 66.0–98.3% at nucleic acid level were found. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the dependence of R. nigrum PR homologs on the PR1 and PR6 families. Four heterogeneous sequences of R. nigrum COI1 with an identity of 95.9–98.8% at nucleic acid level were isolated. Specific primers for newly detected genes’ homologs were designed in this study and could be useful for evaluating the defense response to pathogen attacks in blackcurrants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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16 pages, 779 KiB  
Article
Apple Fruit Growth and Quality Depend on the Position in Tree Canopy
by Darius Kviklys, Jonas Viškelis, Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Valdimaras Janulis, Kristina Laužikė, Giedrė Samuolienė, Nobertas Uselis and Juozas Lanauskas
Plants 2022, 11(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020196 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3964
Abstract
Modern apple orchard systems should guarantee homogeneity of fruit internal and external qualities and fruit maturity parameters. However, when orchards reach productive age, a variation of these parameters takes place and mostly it is related to uneven light distribution within the tree canopy. [...] Read more.
Modern apple orchard systems should guarantee homogeneity of fruit internal and external qualities and fruit maturity parameters. However, when orchards reach productive age, a variation of these parameters takes place and mostly it is related to uneven light distribution within the tree canopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the canopy position’s effect on fruit internal and external quality parameters. This is the first study where all the main fruit quality and maturation parameters were evaluated on the same trees and were related to the light conditions and photosynthetic parameters. Four fruit positions were tested: top of the apple tree, lower inside part of the canopy, and east and west sides of the apple tree. Fruit quality variability was significant for fruit size, blush, colour indices, total sugar content, dry matter concentration, accumulation of secondary metabolites and radical scavenging activity. Fruit position in the canopy did not affect flesh firmness and fruit maturity parameters such as the starch index, Streif index and respiration rate. At the Lithuanian geographical location (55°60′ N), significantly, the highest fruit quality was achieved at the top of the apple tree. The tendency was established that apple fruits from the west side of the canopy have better fruit quality than from the east side and it could be related to better light conditions at the west side of the tree. Inside the canopy, fruits were distinguished only by the higher accumulation of triterpenic compounds and higher content of malic acid. Light is a main factor of fruit quality variation, thus all orchard management practices, including narrow two-dimensional tree canopies and reflecting ground covers which improve light penetration through the tree canopy, should be applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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14 pages, 2689 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Organic Fertilizers on the Abundance of Soil Microorganism Communities, Agrochemical Indicators, and Yield in East Lithuanian Light Soils
by Diana Sivojiene, Audrius Kacergius, Eugenija Baksiene, Aiste Maseviciene and Lina Zickiene
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122648 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Soil microorganisms are one of the main indicators used for assessing the stability of the soil ecosystem, the metabolism in the soil, and its fertility. The most important are the active soil microorganisms and the influence of the fertilizer applied to the soil [...] Read more.
Soil microorganisms are one of the main indicators used for assessing the stability of the soil ecosystem, the metabolism in the soil, and its fertility. The most important are the active soil microorganisms and the influence of the fertilizer applied to the soil on the abundance of these microorganisms. We aimed to investigate how the applied organic fertilizers affect the most active soil microorganisms, which determine the soil fertility and stability. Fungi, yeast-like fungi abundance, and abundance of three physiological groups of bacteria were analyzed: non-symbiotic diazotrophic, organotrophic, and mineral nitrogen assimilating. This study is valuable because relatively few similar studies have been performed on infertile Lithuanian soils. The first results of a long-term study were obtained. The results show the effect of fertilizers on trends in the changes of microorganism community diversity; however, more analysis is needed to assess the impact of organic fertilizers on the most active soil microorganisms. Therefore, the investigation was continued. The results of the 2020 quantitative analysis of culturable soil microorganisms show that the highest abundance of organotrophic and non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria were recorded during the summer season. Meanwhile, the abundance of bacteria assimilating mineral nitrogen and fungi was higher in autumn. Agrochemical parameters were determined at the beginning of the experiment. The highest concentration of Nmin in the soil was determined after fertilizing the plants with the combination of granulated poultry manure (N170) + biological substance Azotobacter spp. The yield of barley was calculated. It was found that the highest yield of spring barley in 2020 was obtained by fertilizing the experimental field with organic in combination with mineral fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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11 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Multienzyme-Assisted Extraction Procedure of Bioactive Compounds Extracts from Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) and Evaluation of Obtained Extracts
by Paulina Štreimikytė, Dalia Urbonavičienė, Aistė Balčiūnaitienė, Pranas Viškelis and Jonas Viškelis
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2567; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122567 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Optimization of the extraction procedure using a multienzymes cocktail for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) is important due to the yield, fermentable sugars, oligosaccharides and bioactive compounds for creating higher added value products. This study was undertaken to find out the optimum [...] Read more.
Optimization of the extraction procedure using a multienzymes cocktail for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) is important due to the yield, fermentable sugars, oligosaccharides and bioactive compounds for creating higher added value products. This study was undertaken to find out the optimum multienzymes-water extraction on yield and total phenolic compounds for common Buckwheat using response surface methodology (RSM). Three independent variables, time (2, 13, and 24 h), temperature (60 °C, 70 °C, 80 °C), and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzymes mixture (0.10, 0.55, and 1.00 mL), were analyzed to optimize the response variables. NSP hydrolyzing enzymes, cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucanase, were produced by Trichoderma reesei. Estimated optimum conditions for F. esculentum were found: time—2 h, temperature—65 °C, and cellulase activity—8.6 CellG5 Units/mL. Different optimization run samples were collected and lyophilized for further analysis until the hydrophilic property using the water contact angle methodology and rutin content using HPLC was determined. Results indicated NSP enzymes activity did not differ between water contact angles after 13 h of enzymatic water extraction. However, longer fermentation time (24 h) decreased static water contact angle by approximately 3–7° for lyophilized water extract and 2–7° for solid fraction after fermentation. It implies enzymatic hydrolysis during water extraction increased hydrophilic properties in solid fraction and decreased hydrophilicity in water fraction due to the enzymes cleaved glycosidic bonds releasing water-soluble compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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16 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Sowing Mixtures of Native Plant Species: Are There Any Differences between Hydroseeding and Regular Seeding?
by Vilma Gudyniene, Sigitas Juzenas, Vaclovas Stukonis and Egle Norkeviciene
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112507 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Hydroseeding is a convenient, low-cost way to plant seeds. Traditionally, fast-growing commercial species that are cheap to obtain are preferred in hydroseeding, while native species have limited use. Nowadays, the use of native species is often desired in revegetation projects. However, there is [...] Read more.
Hydroseeding is a convenient, low-cost way to plant seeds. Traditionally, fast-growing commercial species that are cheap to obtain are preferred in hydroseeding, while native species have limited use. Nowadays, the use of native species is often desired in revegetation projects. However, there is a paucity of information about hydroseeding native species in Northern areas of Europe. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether hydroseeding has any effects on native plant cover formation, species richness and abundance, the development of plant morphological features, or aboveground biomass. A total of 40 native plant species in Lithuania were sowed using hydroseeding and regular seeding. The experimental plots were assessed for two years. The results show a relatively small and short positive effect of hydroseeding on plant cover formation. No significant differences were found in species richness between the sowing treatments. However, a comparison of species composition revealed significant differences between the sowing treatments that were more associated with species abundance than species diversity. Hydroseeding was favoured by legume species, such as Onobrychis viciifolia, Ononis arvensis, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium medium, while Festuca rubra favoured the regular seeding treatment. Overall, our findings emphasize that legume species that display more competitive growth traits should be included in the seed mixture in lower proportions when hydroseeding is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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8 pages, 712 KiB  
Article
Biocontrol of Carrot Disease-Causing Pathogens Using Essential Oils
by Simona Chrapačienė, Neringa Rasiukevičiūtė and Alma Valiuškaitė
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112231 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Alternaria spp. damage the commercial appearance of carrots or cause foliage diseases, resulting in significant yield losses each year and are a source of pre- and postharvest rots. European commission encourages the reduction of chemical pesticides. [...] Read more.
Diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Alternaria spp. damage the commercial appearance of carrots or cause foliage diseases, resulting in significant yield losses each year and are a source of pre- and postharvest rots. European commission encourages the reduction of chemical pesticides. Therefore, the potential of essential oils for alternative plant protection is increasingly discussed. Furthermore, essential oils naturally produced by aromatic plants are rich in secondary metabolites, which possess several biological activities, and their use could be a significant step in environmentally friendly food production. This study aimed to evaluate the Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils efficacy on Alternaria spp. growth inhibition. A Clevenger-type apparatus was used to extract the essential oils from the fresh material. The Alternaria spp. radial colony growth was evaluated under essential oils concentrations from 200 to 600 µL L−1. Each essential oil separately was mixed with a PDA medium and Alternaria spp. disk placed in the center of the Petri dishes. Plates were incubated at 25 °C in the dark and evaluated 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after inoculation. The results revealed little difference between the essential oils, and the most effective concentration was 600 µL L−1 of O. vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil and 400 µL L−1 of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Our findings can help to control carrot disease-causing pathogens Alternaria spp., but further research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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13 pages, 9252 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Specific Soil Microorganisms on Soil Quality Parameters and Organic Matter Content for Cereal Production
by Arnoldas Jurys and Dalia Feizienė
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102000 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Soil chemical, biological and physical properties play important roles in soil quality and are related with increasing organic matter content, soil microbiological activity, plant nutrient content and availability. A new generation of soil amendments, containing specific soil microorganisms, are of great interest worldwide. [...] Read more.
Soil chemical, biological and physical properties play important roles in soil quality and are related with increasing organic matter content, soil microbiological activity, plant nutrient content and availability. A new generation of soil amendments, containing specific soil microorganisms, are of great interest worldwide. Field experiments were carried out in 2018–2019 at the Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The aim was to determine the impact of bio-products containing Trichoderma reesei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus or Bacillus megaterium, and their mixtures on changes of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil respiration, and microbial biodiversity in loamy Cambisol. Under dry meteorological conditions, Trichoderma reesei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Bacillus megaterium bio-products resulted an increase in SOC content, C/N ratio, humic to fulvic acid ratio, soil respiration, and microbial biodiversity. It is concluded that the use of a mixture of three microorganisms (Trichoderma reesei + Acinetobacter calcoaceticus + Bacillus megaterium) is the most promising bio-amendment under climate change. Future research is needed on different soil types and textures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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13 pages, 1521 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Digestate Use for Fertilization in an Agricultural Cropping System
by Modupe Olufemi Doyeni, Urte Stulpinaite, Ausra Baksinskaite, Skaidre Suproniene and Vita Tilvikiene
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081734 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3962
Abstract
The need to find and maximize the use of alternative sources of nutrients for plants and soil environment have been on the forefront of research in sustainable agriculture. These alternatives have to be affordable, accessible, reproduceable, and efficient to compete with established inorganic [...] Read more.
The need to find and maximize the use of alternative sources of nutrients for plants and soil environment have been on the forefront of research in sustainable agriculture. These alternatives have to be affordable, accessible, reproduceable, and efficient to compete with established inorganic fertilizers while at the same time reduce any potential negative impacts on the environment. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digestate fertilization in an agricultural system over a period of three years. The digestate utilized in the study consisted of animal waste-based digestates, namely pig manure digestate, chicken manure digestate, and cow manure digestate, and were compared with synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. Every year, the digestate and the synthetic nitrogen fertilizer were split applied at the rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha−1. The soil chemical composition after three years of fertilization showed a slight decrease, significantly different nitrogen and carbon changes while phosphorus and potassium were significantly higher in the digestate treatments. The third year of digestate application showed higher grain yield than previous years and the yield from the digestate treatments were significantly different from the synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The nitrogen use efficiency for the three years was in the range of 20–25 percent in the digestate treatments, with a strong correlation between the nitrogen use efficiency and the grain yield. There were varied results in the grain quality and straw quality in the digestate and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer with no clear trend observed. Our results showed a relatively high potential of animal waste digestates over the short to mid-term use with a positive result obtained in comparison to synthetic nitrogen fertilizer under favorable climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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11 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Rootstock and High-Density Planting on Apple cv. Auksis Fruit Quality
by Kristina Laužikė, Nobertas Uselis and Giedrė Samuolienė
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061253 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3528
Abstract
Global demand for food is increasing each year, but the area of land suitable for farming is limited. Thus, there is a need to grow not only larger quantities of food but also higher quality food products in the same area. This study [...] Read more.
Global demand for food is increasing each year, but the area of land suitable for farming is limited. Thus, there is a need to grow not only larger quantities of food but also higher quality food products in the same area. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstock and high-density orchards on cv. Auksis fruit quality. Two rootstocks were selected for this experiment, P 22 super dwarfing and P 60 dwarfing. Apple trees cv. Auksis were planted in the year 2001 in single rows spaced 1.00 m, 0.75 m, and 0.50 m, apart with 3 m between rows. High-density planting and rootstock combination was found to have no significant effect on sugar accumulation and most of the elements in apple fruits. However, super dwarfing P 22 rootstock accumulated significantly higher (up to 45%) content of organic acids and up to 33%–44% lower DPPH free radical scavering activity compared to P 60 dwarfing rootstock. After summarizing the obtained results, apples which accumulated the most antioxidants (according to the activity of phenolic compounds, DPPH and ABTS), magnesium, and potassium were collected from cv. Auksis apple trees which was grafted on super dwarfing P 22 rootstock and planted at 3 × 0.75 m distances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2021)
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