Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2024) | Viewed by 29119

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Centre of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Ed. 7, Campus of Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: natural products; medicinal plants; halophytes; saline cultivation; in vitro propagation; biological activities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Marine Sciences—CCMAR, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: marine biotechnology; halophyte plants; medicinal plants; natural products; marine biology; bioactive compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal Plants will be publishing a Special Issue on “Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants”. For centuries, nature has been used as a source of medicines to treat numerous diseases. The first records of plant uses in traditional medicine date back to 2600 years BC in Mesopotamia, with accounts of more than 1000 plant-derived products. Easy access to these plants makes them an excellent source of bioactive molecules for the development of new drugs, leading to a high diversity of plant-derived compounds used in the pharmaceutical industry. For example, paclitaxel (Taxol®) and vinblastine (Velban®), derived from Taxus brevifolia Nutt. and Catharanthus roseus L., respectively, are used for cancer treatment; Physostigma venenosum Balf. and Galanthus caucasicus L. naturally produce the active principle of the commercial drugs physostigmine (Exelon®) and galantamine (Nivalin®), respectively, which are used for the treatment of Alzheimer´s disease. This worldwide trend was reinforced by the Nobel Prize laureates in physiology or medicine in 2015, where Youyou Tu was honoured for her discovery of artemisinin, a novel drug for therapy against malaria, which was derived from Artemisia annua L., a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Considering the high interest in plant-derived products, this Special Issue will contribute to expanding the knowledge on the natural products derived from medicinal plants with diverse biotechnological applications (e.g., pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, health supplementation, and food additives). Scientific papers, including reviews, mini-reviews, commentaries, and original research papers, are welcome.

Dr. Maria João Rodrigues
Dr. Catarina Guerreiro Pereira
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • natural products
  • biological activities
  • metabolomic profile
  • health supplements
  • food additives
  • cosmetics
  • food

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 334 KiB  
Article
Harnessing the Bioactive Potential of Limonium spathulatum (Desf.) Kuntze: Insights into Enzyme Inhibition and Phytochemical Profile
by Seria Youssef, Luisa Custódio, Maria João Rodrigues, Catarina G. Pereira, Ricardo C. Calhelha, József Jekő, Zoltán Cziáky and Karim Ben Hamed
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3391; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193391 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
This study assessed the halophyte species Limonium spathulatum (Desf.) as a possible source of natural ingredients with the capacity to inhibit enzymes related to relevant human health disorders and food browning. Extracts using food-grade solvents such as water and ethanol were prepared by [...] Read more.
This study assessed the halophyte species Limonium spathulatum (Desf.) as a possible source of natural ingredients with the capacity to inhibit enzymes related to relevant human health disorders and food browning. Extracts using food-grade solvents such as water and ethanol were prepared by maceration from dried L. spathulatum leaves. They were evaluated for in vitro inhibition activity of enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-glucosidase, tyrosinase and lipase, related to Alzheimer’s disease, type-2-diabetes mellitus, skin hyperpigmentation, and obesity, respectively. These extracts were also appraised for in vitro acute toxicity on tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines and their chemical composition by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The extracts were more effective towards BChE than AChE. The best results were obtained with the hydroethanolic and water extracts, with IC50 values of 0.03 mg/mL and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively. The hydroethanolic extract had the highest capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.04 mg/mL), higher than the positive control used (acarbose, IC50 = 3.14 mg/mL). The ethanol extract displayed the best inhibitory activity against tyrosinase (IC50 = 0.34 mg/mL). The tested samples did not inhibit lipase and exhibited low to moderate cytotoxic activity against the tested cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract had a higher diversity of compounds, followed by the ethanol and water samples. Similar molecules were identified in all the extracts and were mainly hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids. Taken together, these results suggest that L. spathulatum should be further explored as a source of bioactive ingredients for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
21 pages, 11067 KiB  
Article
Effects of Allium hookeri Extracts on Hair-Inductive and Anti-Oxidative Properties in Human Dermal Papilla Cells
by Seokmuk Park, Nayeon Han, Jung-Min Lee, Jae-Ho Lee and Seunghee Bae
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091919 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Oxidative stress and cellular senescence in dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are major etiological factors causing hair loss. In this study, the effect of the Allium hookeri extract (AHE) on hair-inductive and anti-oxidative properties was investigated in human DPCs. As a result, it was [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and cellular senescence in dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are major etiological factors causing hair loss. In this study, the effect of the Allium hookeri extract (AHE) on hair-inductive and anti-oxidative properties was investigated in human DPCs. As a result, it was found that a non-cytotoxic concentration of the extracts increased the viability and size of the human DPC spheroid, which was associated with the increased expression of hair-growth-related genes in cells. To determine whether or not these effects could be attributed to intracellular anti-oxidative effects, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry alongside various biochemical analyses are conducted herein. An ingredient called alliin was identified as one of the main components. Furthermore, AHE treatment induced a significant decrease in H2O2-mediated cytotoxicities, cell death, and cellular senescence in human DPCs. Upon analyzing these results with a molecular mechanism approach, it was shown that AHE treatment increased β-Catenin and NRF2 translocation into the nucleus while inhibiting the translocation of NF-κB (p50) through p38 and PKA-mediated phosphorylations of GSK3β, an upstream regulator of those proteins. These results overall indicate the possibility that AHE can regulate GSK3β-mediated β-Catenin, NRF2, and NF-κB signaling to enhance hair-inductive properties and ultimately protect against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage in human DPCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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19 pages, 2407 KiB  
Article
New Insights into the Phytochemical Profile and Biological Properties of Lycium intricatum Bois. (Solanaceae)
by Houaria Bendjedou, Houari Benamar, Malika Bennaceur, Maria João Rodrigues, Catarina Guerreiro Pereira, Riccardo Trentin and Luísa Custódio
Plants 2023, 12(5), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12050996 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1426
Abstract
This work aimed to boost the valorisation of Lycium intricatum Boiss. L. as a source of high added value bioproducts. For that purpose, leaves and root ethanol extracts and fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) were prepared and evaluated for radical [...] Read more.
This work aimed to boost the valorisation of Lycium intricatum Boiss. L. as a source of high added value bioproducts. For that purpose, leaves and root ethanol extracts and fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) were prepared and evaluated for radical scavenging activity (RSA) on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal chelating potential against copper and iron ions. Extracts were also appraised for in vitro inhibition of enzymes implicated on the onset of neurological diseases (acetylcholinesterase: AChE and butyrylcholinesterase: BuChE), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, α-glucosidase), obesity/acne (lipase), and skin hyperpigmentation/food oxidation (tyrosinase). The total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), and hydrolysable tannins (THTC) was evaluated by colorimetric methods, while the phenolic profile was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode-array ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV-DAD). Extracts had significant RSA and FRAP, and moderate copper chelation, but no iron chelating capacity. Samples had a higher activity towards α-glucosidase and tyrosinase, especially those from roots, a low capacity to inhibit AChE, and no activity towards BuChE and lipase. The ethyl acetate fraction of roots had the highest TPC and THTC, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction of leaves had the highest flavonoid levels. Gallic, gentisic, ferulic, and trans-cinnamic acids were identified in both organs. The results suggest that L. intricatum is a promising source of bioactive compounds with food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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22 pages, 1565 KiB  
Article
Nutritional and Phyto-Therapeutic Value of the Halophyte Cladium mariscus L. (Pohl.): A Special Focus on Seeds
by Maria João Rodrigues, Luísa Custódio, Débora Mecha, Gokhan Zengin, Zoltán Cziáky, Gyula Sotkó and Catarina Guerreiro Pereira
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2910; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212910 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
This work searched for the phyto-therapeutic potential and nutritional value of seeds from the halophyte Cladium mariscus L. (Pohl.), aiming at its use as a source of bioactive ingredients for the food industry. Hence, the nutritional profile, including minerals, of seeds biomass was [...] Read more.
This work searched for the phyto-therapeutic potential and nutritional value of seeds from the halophyte Cladium mariscus L. (Pohl.), aiming at its use as a source of bioactive ingredients for the food industry. Hence, the nutritional profile, including minerals, of seeds biomass was determined; food-grade samples were prepared, and their phytochemical fingerprinting assessed. Extracts were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant potential, inhibitory capacity towards enzymes related to neuroprotection, diabetes, and hyperpigmentation, and anti-inflammatory properties, along with a toxicological assessment. Sawgrass seeds can be considered a proper nutritional source with a good supply of minerals. All extracts had a high level of total phenolics (65.3–394.4 mg GAE/g DW) and showed a chemically rich and diverse profile of metabolites that have several biological properties described (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory). Extracts had no significant toxicity (cell viabilities > 80%) and were overall strong antioxidants (particularly at radical scavenging and reducing iron), effective tyrosinase inhibitors (55–71 mg KAE/g DW), showed anti-inflammatory properties (30–60% NO decrease), and had moderate capacity to inhibit enzymes related to neuroprotection (AChE 3.7–4.2, BChE 4.3–6.0 mg GALE/g DW) and diabetes (α-glucosidase 1.0–1.1, α-amylase 0.8–1.1 mmol ACAE/g). Altogether, results suggest that sawgrass seeds have the potential to be exploited as a new food product and are a reservoir of bioactive molecules with prospective applications as ingredients for value-added, functional, and/or preservative food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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22 pages, 3337 KiB  
Article
Novel Antiviral Efficacy of Hedyotis diffusa and Artemisia capillaris Extracts against Dengue Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, and Zika Virus Infection and Immunoregulatory Cytokine Signatures
by Zhan Qiu Mao, Noboru Minakawa and Meng Ling Moi
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192589 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1796
Abstract
Currently, there are no specific therapeutics for flavivirus infections, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). In this study, we evaluated extracts from the plants Hedyotis diffusa (HD) and Artemisia capillaris (AC) to determine the antiviral activity against DENV, ZIKV, and Japanese [...] Read more.
Currently, there are no specific therapeutics for flavivirus infections, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). In this study, we evaluated extracts from the plants Hedyotis diffusa (HD) and Artemisia capillaris (AC) to determine the antiviral activity against DENV, ZIKV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). HD and AC demonstrated inhibitory activity against JEV, ZIKV, and DENV replication and reduced viral RNA levels in a dose–responsive manner, with non-cytotoxic concentration ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/mL. HD and AC had low cytotoxicity to Vero cells, with CC50 values of 33.7 ± 1.6 and 30.3 ± 1.7 mg/mL (mean ± SD), respectively. The anti-flavivirus activity of HD and AC was also consistent in human cell lines, including human glioblastoma (T98G), human chronic myeloid leukemia (K562), and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) cells. Viral-infected, HD-treated cells demonstrated downregulation of cytokines including CCR1, CCL26, CCL15, CCL5, IL21, and IL17C. In contrast, CCR1, CCL26, and AIMP1 were elevated following AC treatment in viral-infected cells. Overall, HD and AC plant extracts demonstrated flavivirus replication inhibitory activity, and together with immunoregulatory cytokine signatures, these results suggest that HD and AC possess bioactive compounds that may further be refined as promising candidates for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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20 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
Novel Pesticidal Efficacy of Araucaria heterophylla and Commiphora molmol Extracts against Camel and Cattle Blood-Sucking Ectoparasites
by Mohamed M. Baz, Hanem F. Khater, Rowida S. Baeshen, Abdelfattah Selim, Emad S. Shaheen, Yasser A. El-Sayed, Salama A. Salama and Maysa M. Hegazy
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131682 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Botanical insecticides are promising pest control agents. This research investigated the novel pesticidal efficacy of Araucaria heterophylla and Commiphora molmol extracts against four ectoparasites through treated envelopes. Seven days post-treatment (PT) with 25 mg/mL of C. molmol and A. heterophylla, complete mortality [...] Read more.
Botanical insecticides are promising pest control agents. This research investigated the novel pesticidal efficacy of Araucaria heterophylla and Commiphora molmol extracts against four ectoparasites through treated envelopes. Seven days post-treatment (PT) with 25 mg/mL of C. molmol and A. heterophylla, complete mortality of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii and cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were reached. Against H. dromedarii, the median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of the methanol extracts were 1.13 and 1.04 mg/mL and those of the hexane extracts were 1.47 and 1.38 mg/mL, respectively. The LC50 values of methanol and hexane extracts against R. annulatus were 1.09 and 1.41 plus 1.55 and 1.08 mg/mL, respectively. Seven days PT with 12.5 mg/mL, extracts completely controlled Haematopinus eurysternus and Hippobosca maculata; LC50 of Ha. eurysternus were 0.56 and 0.62 mg/mL for methanol extracts and 0.55 and 1.00 mg/mL for hexane extracts, respectively, whereas those of Hi. maculata were 0.67 and 0.78 mg/mL for methanol extract and 0.68 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, for hexane extracts. C. molmol extracts contained sesquiterpene, fatty acid esters and phenols, whereas those of A. heterophylla possessed monoterpene, sesquiterpene, terpene alcohols, fatty acid, and phenols. Consequently, methanol extracts of C. molmol and A. heterophylla were recommended as ecofriendly pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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14 pages, 1125 KiB  
Article
The Medicinal Halophyte Frankenia laevis L. (Sea Heath) Has In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, α-Glucosidase Inhibition, and Cytotoxicity towards Hepatocarcinoma Cells
by Maria João Rodrigues, József Jekő, Zoltán Cziáky, Catarina G. Pereira and Luísa Custódio
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101353 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
This work explored the medicinal halophyte Frankenia laevis L. (sea heath) as a potential source of bioactive natural products. In this sense, methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared from aerial organs containing flowers, leaves and stems, and were profiled for their chemical composition [...] Read more.
This work explored the medicinal halophyte Frankenia laevis L. (sea heath) as a potential source of bioactive natural products. In this sense, methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared from aerial organs containing flowers, leaves and stems, and were profiled for their chemical composition using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant capacity using five complementary methods: enzyme inhibitory effects on enzymes related with neurodegeneration (acetyl (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)), Type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase), hyperpigmentation/food oxidation (tyrosinase), and cytotoxicity towards human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Fifty-one molecules were identified in the extracts, including several derivatives of phenolic acids, lignans and flavonoids, monoterpenes, and hydroxylated derivatives of linoleic acid. The methanol extract was effective in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging (EC50 = 0.25 and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively), copper chelation (EC50 = 0.78 mg/mL), and iron reduction (EC50 = 0.51 mg/mL) activities, whereas the dichloromethane extract had high iron chelating ability (EC50 = 0.76 mg/mL). Both extracts showed the capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase, especially the dichloromethane (EC50 = 0.52 mg/mL). This extract also exerted a significant selective cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells (EC50 = 52.1 μg/mL, SI > 1.9). In conclusion, extracts from the aerial parts of sea heath were shown to be a promising source of natural products for pharmaceutical and/or food additive applications due to their high antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and cytotoxic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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24 pages, 5556 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Capacity of Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. and Its Beneficial Effects Related to Anti-Aging in HaCaT and B16F10 Cells
by Hwa Pyoung Lee, Dong Seon Kim, Sang Hee Park, Chae Yun Shin, Jin Joo Woo, Ji Won Kim, Ren-Bo An, Changyoung Lee and Jae Youl Cho
Plants 2022, 11(7), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070873 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3325
Abstract
Skin aging is a natural process influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and many skin anti-aging strategies have been developed. Plants from the genus Potentilla has been used in Europe and Asia to treat various diseases. Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. has been used as [...] Read more.
Skin aging is a natural process influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and many skin anti-aging strategies have been developed. Plants from the genus Potentilla has been used in Europe and Asia to treat various diseases. Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. has been used as a traditional medicinal herb in China and has recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the biological and pharmacological potential of Potentilla paradoxa Nutt., its skin anti-aging effects remain unclear. Therefore, this study evaluated the free radical scavenging, moisturizing, anti-melanogenic, and wound-healing effects of an ethanol extract of Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. (Pp-EE). Pp-EE was found to contain phenolics and flavonoids and exhibits in vitro antioxidant activities. α-Linolenic acid was found to be a major component of Pp-EE on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pp-EE promoted the expression of hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis-related enzymes and suppressed the expression of HA degradation-related enzymes in keratinocytes, so it may increase skin hydration. Pp-EE also showed inhibitory effects on the production and secretion of melanin in melanocytes. In a scratch assay, Pp-EE improved skin wound healing. Taken together, Pp-EE has several effects that may delay skin aging, suggesting its potential benefits as a natural ingredient in cosmetic or pharmaceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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16 pages, 2471 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Functions of Methanol Extract from Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Leaves and Shoots by Targeting the NF-κB Pathway
by Chaoran Song, Hongxi Chen, Soo Ah Kim, Jong Sub Lee, Eui Su Choung, Zhiyun Zhang, Soo-Yong Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim and Jae Youl Cho
Plants 2022, 11(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050646 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. is a widely used medical plant in Asia. Since the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this plant is not fully understood, the aim of this study was to explore the anti-inflammatory function and mechanism of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. methanol extract [...] Read more.
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. is a widely used medical plant in Asia. Since the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this plant is not fully understood, the aim of this study was to explore the anti-inflammatory function and mechanism of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. methanol extract (Mb-ME). For in vitro experiments, nitric oxide production assay, PCR, overexpression strategy, immunoblotting, luciferase reporter assay, and immunoprecipitation were employed to explore the molecular mechanism and the target proteins of Mb-ME. For in vivo experiments, an HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis mouse model was used to confirm the anti-inflammatory function. Mb-ME showed a strong ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and the expression of inflammatory genes. Mb-ME decreased NF-κB luciferase activity mediated by MyD88 and TRIF. Moreover, Mb-ME blocked the activation of Src, Syk, p85, Akt, p50, p60, IKKα/β, and IκBα in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Overexpression and immunoprecipitation analyses suggested Syk and Src as the target enzymes of Mb-ME. In vitro results showed that Mb-ME could alleviate gastritis and relieve the protein expression of p-Src, p-Syk, and COX-2, as well as the gene expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. In summary, this study implied that Mb-ME performs an anti-inflammatory role by suppressing Syk and Src in the NF-κB signaling pathway, both in vivo and in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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Review

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21 pages, 3625 KiB  
Review
Potential Plant-Based New Antiplasmodial Agent Used in Papua Island, Indonesia
by Raden Bayu Indradi, Muhaimin Muhaimin, Melisa Intan Barliana and Alfi Khatib
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091813 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Resistance to antimalarial medicine remains a threat to the global effort for malaria eradication. The World Health Organization recently reported that artemisinin partial resistance, which was defined as delayed parasite clearance, was detected in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Greater Mekong subregion, and [...] Read more.
Resistance to antimalarial medicine remains a threat to the global effort for malaria eradication. The World Health Organization recently reported that artemisinin partial resistance, which was defined as delayed parasite clearance, was detected in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Greater Mekong subregion, and in Africa, particularly in Rwanda and Uganda. Therefore, the discovery of a potential new drug is important to overcome emerging drug resistance. Natural products have played an important role in drug development over the centuries, including the development of antimalarial drugs, with most of it influenced by traditional use. Recent research on traditional medicine used as an antimalarial treatment on Papua Island, Indonesia, reported that 72 plant species have been used as traditional medicine, with Alstonia scholaris, Carica papaya, Andrographis paniculata, and Physalis minima as the most frequently used medicinal plants. This review aimed to highlight the current research status of these plants for potential novel antiplasmodial development. In conclusion, A. paniculata has the highest potential to be developed as an antiplasmodial, and its extract and known bioactive isolate andrographolide posed strong activity both in vitro and in vivo. A. scholaris and C. papaya also have the potential to be further investigated as both have good potential for their antiplasmodial activities in vivo. However, P. minima is a less studied medicinal plant; nevertheless, it opens the opportunity to explore the potential of this plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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33 pages, 9801 KiB  
Review
Traditional Medicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological Properties, and Health Applications of Vitex sp.
by Nurkhalida Kamal, Nurul Syahidah Mio Asni, Ivana Nur Allisya Rozlan, Muhammad Aniq Hamzah Mohd Azmi, Noor Wini Mazlan, Ahmed Mediani, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Jalifah Latip, Suvik Assaw and Ru Angelie Edrada-Ebel
Plants 2022, 11(15), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11151944 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6814
Abstract
The genus Vitex is also known as a chaste tree, in which it is a large shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A diverse range of species is distributed throughout Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and Central Asia. The [...] Read more.
The genus Vitex is also known as a chaste tree, in which it is a large shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A diverse range of species is distributed throughout Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and Central Asia. The Vitex tree, including its leaves and fruits, has been used for herbal remedies in the form of pastes, decoctions, and dried fruits since ancient times. This article aimed to prepare a comprehensive review of traditional uses and secondary metabolites derived from Vitex sp., including the chemical compounds, biological activities, application of Vitex in human clinical trials, toxicology and safety, marketed products, and patents. The scientific findings were obtained using a number of search engines and databases, including Google Scholar, PMC, and ScienceDirect. Vitex species are well known in pharmacology to have medicinal values, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Previous studies reported that some species are proven to be effective in treating diseases, such as diabetes, and improving female health. A total of 161 compounds from different Vitex species are reported, covering the literature from 1982 to 2022. A chemical analysis report of various studies identified that Vitex exhibited a wide range of phytoconstituents, such as iridoid, diterpenoid, ecdysteroid, and flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Apart from that, the review will also discuss the application of Vitex in human clinical trials, toxicology and safety, marketed products, and patents of the genus. While the extracts of the genus have been made into many commercial products, including supplements and essential oils, most of them are made to be used by women to improve menstrual conditions and relieve premenstrual syndrome. Among the species, Vitex agnus-castus L. is the only one that has been reported to undergo clinical trials, mainly related to the use of the genus for the treatment of mastalgia, menstrual bleeding problems, amenorrhea, menorrhagia, luteal insufficiency, and premenstrual syndrome. Overall, the review addresses recent therapeutic breakthroughs and identifies research gaps that should be explored for prospective research work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprospecting of Natural Products from Medicinal Plants)
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