Special Issue "Laser Amplifiers"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732). This special issue belongs to the section "Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nasser Peyghambarian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0094, USA
Interests: fiber optics, fiber lasers and amplifiers; organic photonics; 3D holographic display and 3D telepresence; nonlinear photonics; optical modulators and switches; laser spectroscopy; nanostructures and quantum dots
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Arturo Chavez-Pirson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0094, USA
Interests: specialty glass and optical fibers; single-frequency fiber lasers; high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers; short-pulse fiber amplifier; mid-infrared optical fibers; mid-infrared fiber-based supercontinuum sources; directed energy

Special Issue Information

Dear colleague,

In this Special Issue on Laser Amplifiers, we assemble contributions covering the most recent exciting developments in laser amplifiers. Diverse scientific fields and a broad spectrum of applications benefit greatly from novel and high-performance amplifiers in terms of their outstanding properties addressing wavelength ranges, spectral coverage and purity, average power, peak power, pulse energy, time duration, and many more. The assembled contributions are not exhaustive in the coverage of the field, but we consider them as important and noteworthy in taking the pulse of current developments and prospects for future work. Technical topics include but not limited to the following:

  • Laser amplifiers – scientific foundations
  • EUV-UV light generation and amplification using lasers
  • Short pulse (fs) laser amplifiers
  • High energy pulsed laser amplifiers – solid state
  • High energy pulsed laser amplifiers – fiber
  • High energy pulsed laser amplifiers – gas
  • Single frequency highly coherent laser amplifiers
  • Parametric fiber amplifiers
  • KW-class laser amplifiers
  • Mid-IR light generation and amplification by laser

Prof. Dr. Nasser Peyghambarian
Prof. Dr. Arturo Chavez-Pirson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Performance Evaluation of Solid-State Laser Gain Module by Measurement of Thermal Effect and Energy Storage
Photonics 2021, 8(10), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8100418 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The optimization of solid-state laser cavities requires a deep understanding of the gain module, the most critical laser component. This study proposes a procedure for evaluating the performance of the solid-state laser gain module. The thermal effect and energy storage characteristics are the [...] Read more.
The optimization of solid-state laser cavities requires a deep understanding of the gain module, the most critical laser component. This study proposes a procedure for evaluating the performance of the solid-state laser gain module. The thermal effect and energy storage characteristics are the performance criteria. A normalized heating parameter was calculated as a quantitative indicator of the performance criteria. We proposed a method to quantify the heat dissipated into the gain medium using the wavefront distortion, thermal deformation theory of the gain medium, and the ray transfer matrix method. The suggested procedure was verified by evaluating the flashlamp type Nd:YAG rod gain module, but it can also even be extended to other solid-state laser gain modules by applying the appropriate thermal deformation theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Communication
Development of a 1 TW/35 fs Ti:sapphire Laser Amplifier and Generation of Intense THz Waves Using Two-Color Laser Filamentation
Photonics 2021, 8(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8080316 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
We developed a compact Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system in our laboratory, generating intense laser pulses with a peak power of >1 TW (terawatt), a pulse duration of 34 fs (femtosecond), a central wavelength of 800 nm, and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. [...] Read more.
We developed a compact Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system in our laboratory, generating intense laser pulses with a peak power of >1 TW (terawatt), a pulse duration of 34 fs (femtosecond), a central wavelength of 800 nm, and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The laser amplifier system consists of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, and a single-side-pumped 4-pass amplifier. The chirped-pulse amplification (CPA)-based laser amplifier was found to provide an energy of 49.6 mJ after compression by gratings in air, where the pumping fluence of 1.88 J/cm2 was used. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) level was measured to be lower than 10−7, and ps-prepulses were in 10−4 or lower level. The developed laser amplifier system was used for the generation of intense THz (terahertz) waves by focusing the original (800 nm) and second harmonic (400 nm) laser pulses in air. The THz pulse energy was shown to be saturated in the high laser energy regime, and this phenomenon was confirmed by fully electromagnetic, relativistic, and self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Communication
Phase Compensation Method in OPA System Based on the Linear Electro-Optic Effect
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040126 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Factors such as mechanical deformation and temperature changes lead to phase mismatch in optical parametric amplification systems, impacting energy stability. A phase compensation method via the linear electro-optic effect can overcome this limitation. Phase mismatch compensation characteristics were simulated via the linear electro-optic [...] Read more.
Factors such as mechanical deformation and temperature changes lead to phase mismatch in optical parametric amplification systems, impacting energy stability. A phase compensation method via the linear electro-optic effect can overcome this limitation. Phase mismatch compensation characteristics were simulated via the linear electro-optic effect in 70%-deuterated DKDP and 95%-deuterated DKDP. This method was applied to OPA systems to verify its feasibility. The results show that the temperature acceptance bandwidth of 70%-deuterated DKDP and 95%-deuterated DKDP can be ~1.75 and ~2 times larger, respectively, than that of the OPA without compensation. Moreover, the angle acceptance bandwidth of 70%-deuterated DKDP and 95%-deuterated DKDP can be ~2 times larger than that of the OPA without compensation. The abovementioned method can facilitate the compensation of phase mismatch within a range and can be widely used in OPA and optical parametric chirped pulse amplification systems to improve laser stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Article
High-Peak-Power Long-Wave Infrared Lasers with CO2 Amplifiers
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040101 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
Long-wave infrared (LWIR) picosecond pulses with multi-terawatt peak power have recently become available for advanced high-energy physics and material research. Multi-joule pulse energy is achieved in an LWIR laser system via amplification of a microjoule seed pulse with high-pressure, mixed-isotope CO2 amplifiers. [...] Read more.
Long-wave infrared (LWIR) picosecond pulses with multi-terawatt peak power have recently become available for advanced high-energy physics and material research. Multi-joule pulse energy is achieved in an LWIR laser system via amplification of a microjoule seed pulse with high-pressure, mixed-isotope CO2 amplifiers. A chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) scheme is employed in such a laser to reduce the nonlinear interaction between the optical field and the transmissive elements of the system. Presently, a research and development effort is underway towards an even higher LWIR peak power that is required, for instance, for promising particle acceleration schemes. The required boost of the peak power can be achieved by reducing the pulse duration to fractions of a picosecond. For this purpose, the possibility of reducing the gain narrowing in the laser amplifiers and post-compression techniques are being studied. Another direction in research is aimed at the increased throughput (i.e., repetition rate), efficiency, and reliability of LWIR laser systems. The transition from a traditional electric-discharge pumping to an optical pumping scheme for CO2 amplifiers is expected to improve the robustness of high-peak-power LWIR lasers, making them suitable for broad implementation in scientific laboratory, industrial, and clinical environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Article
Modeling and Measurement of Thermal Effect in a Flashlamp-Pumped Direct-Liquid-Cooled Split-Disk Nd:LuAG Ceramic Laser Amplifier
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040097 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
In this paper, a model to predict the thermal effects in a flashlamp-pumped direct-liquid-cooled split-disk Nd:LuAG ceramic laser amplifier has been presented. In addition to pumping distribution, the model calculates thermal-induced wavefront aberration as a function of temperature, thermal stress and thermal deformation [...] Read more.
In this paper, a model to predict the thermal effects in a flashlamp-pumped direct-liquid-cooled split-disk Nd:LuAG ceramic laser amplifier has been presented. In addition to pumping distribution, the model calculates thermal-induced wavefront aberration as a function of temperature, thermal stress and thermal deformation in the gain medium. Experimental measurements are carried out to assess the accuracy of the model. We expect that this study will assist in the design and optimization of high-energy lasers operated at repetition rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Article
Joule-Level Twelve-Pass LD End-Pumped Bonded Neodymium Glass Laser Amplifier
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040096 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 618
Abstract
This paper reports on a Joule-level multi-pass laser amplification device with diode end-pumped square-rod neodymium glass (Nd:glass) bonded to K9 glass. The device generated 1.17 J pulse energy at 1 Hz and 1053 nm. The optical-to-optical efficiency was 13.01%, and the effective energy [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a Joule-level multi-pass laser amplification device with diode end-pumped square-rod neodymium glass (Nd:glass) bonded to K9 glass. The device generated 1.17 J pulse energy at 1 Hz and 1053 nm. The optical-to-optical efficiency was 13.01%, and the effective energy extraction efficiency was 44.23%. Comparing Nd:glass of the same specification without K9 glass under the same conditions, the thermal wave aberration of the former was 85.71% of that of the latter, which is 0.78 um. The near-field modulation degree at the highest energy output was 1.42 within 90% of the spot, and the far-field energy concentration was 81.88% within the 2.5-fold diffraction limit. The Nd:glass bonding method of the square rod is relatively novel in laser amplification systems pumped by the diode end face and can be further studied in future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Optic Effects in an Nd: Glass Slab with Low Thermally Induced Wavefront Distortion
Photonics 2021, 8(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8040091 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 489
Abstract
A gain slab configuration with a low thermally induced wavefront distortion, which is based on heating the edge by the cladding layer, is proposed. The gain slab will be applied to a helium-cooled Nd: glass multislab laser amplifier with an output of 100 [...] Read more.
A gain slab configuration with a low thermally induced wavefront distortion, which is based on heating the edge by the cladding layer, is proposed. The gain slab will be applied to a helium-cooled Nd: glass multislab laser amplifier with an output of 100 J at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Additionally, a 3D numerical simulation model is developed to analyze the thermo-optic effects in the gain slab. Some parameters, including the absorption coefficient (α) of the cladding layer, the shape of the pump beam, and the gap between the pump area and absorbing cladding layer, are optimized to eliminate the thermo-optic effects. The results indicate that the peak-to-valley (P-V) of the thermally induced wavefront distortion of the specific gain slab can be reduced by 61% if other parameters remain constant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Article
An Eye-Safe, SBS-Free Coherent Fiber Laser LIDAR Transmitter with Millijoule Energy and High Average Power
Photonics 2021, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8010015 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 633
Abstract
We report on an eye-safe, transform-limited, millijoule energy, and high average power fiber laser. The high gain and short length of the NP phosphate-glass fibers enable the SBS-free operation with kW level peak power. The output energy is up to 1.3 mJ, and [...] Read more.
We report on an eye-safe, transform-limited, millijoule energy, and high average power fiber laser. The high gain and short length of the NP phosphate-glass fibers enable the SBS-free operation with kW level peak power. The output energy is up to 1.3 mJ, and the average power is up to 23 W at an 18 kHz repetition rate with 600 ns pulses (peak power > 2.1 kW). The PER is ≈16 dB and the M2 of the beam is 1.33 × 1.18. The coherent LIDAR Figure Of Merit (FOM) is 174 mJ*sqrt(Hz), which to our knowledge is the highest reported for a fiber laser. We also report 0.75 mJ energy and >3.7 kW peak power with down to 200 ns pulses and up to 1.21 mJ energy with a 3–5 kHz repetition rate operation of the current system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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Review

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Review
Mid-Infrared Few-Cycle Pulse Generation and Amplification
Photonics 2021, 8(8), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8080290 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
In the past decade, mid-infrared (MIR) few-cycle lasers have attracted remarkable research efforts for their applications in strong-field physics, MIR spectroscopy, and bio-medical research. Here we present a review of MIR few-cycle pulse generation and amplification in the wavelength range spanning from 2 [...] Read more.
In the past decade, mid-infrared (MIR) few-cycle lasers have attracted remarkable research efforts for their applications in strong-field physics, MIR spectroscopy, and bio-medical research. Here we present a review of MIR few-cycle pulse generation and amplification in the wavelength range spanning from 2 to ~20 μm. In the first section, a brief introduction on the importance of MIR ultrafast lasers and the corresponding methods of MIR few-cycle pulse generation is provided. In the second section, different nonlinear crystals including emerging non-oxide crystals, such as CdSiP2, ZnGeP2, GaSe, LiGaS2, and BaGa4Se7, as well as new periodically poled crystals such as OP-GaAs and OP-GaP are reviewed. Subsequently, in the third section, the various techniques for MIR few-cycle pulse generation and amplification including optical parametric amplification, optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification, and intra-pulse difference-frequency generation with all sorts of designs, pumped by miscellaneous lasers, and with various MIR output specifications in terms of pulse energy, average power, and pulse width are reviewed. In addition, high-energy MIR single-cycle pulses are ideal tools for isolated attosecond pulse generation, electron dynamic investigation, and tunneling ionization harness. Thus, in the fourth section, examples of state-of-the-art work in the field of MIR single-cycle pulse generation are reviewed and discussed. In the last section, prospects for MIR few-cycle lasers in strong-field physics, high-fidelity molecule detection, and cold tissue ablation applications are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Amplifiers)
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