Special Issue "Iontophoresis for Drug Delivery and Non-Invasive Sampling Applications"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. M. Begoña Delgado-Charro

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: transdermal and topical drug delivery; formulation; chemical and iontophoretic permeation enhancement; topical bioequivalence; nail drug delivery; non-invasive sampling; prediction of skin absorption
Guest Editor
Prof. Virginia Merino Sanjuán

Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM) Universitat Politecnica de València, Universitat de València, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: iontophoresis; transdermal absorption; oral absorption; topical and transdermal bioavailability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Iontophoresis is a versatile technique used for controlled drug delivery and non-invasive sampling applications. This drug delivery strategy has been exploited to increase and control the passage of molecules through biological membranes with applications in the transdermal, topical, ocular, dental, trans-ungueal and trans-mucosal routes of administration. Significant progress has improved our understanding of the mechanisms of transport and the design of efficient iontophoretic vehicles. Non-invasive sampling applications target the skin interface primarily. Several iontophoretic devices have gone through regulatory approval but demonstrated limited commercial success.

This Special Issue will gather current progress in the iontophoresis field and critically evaluate what is the place of this technique in the future therapeutic armamentarium and what is required to better exploit iontophoresis for the benefit of patients.

We invite articles from academics, industry and clinical researchers on all aspects of iontophoresis, from basic principles and theoretical modelling to basic and clinical research.

Dr. M. Begoña Delgado-Charro
Prof. Virginia Merino Sanjuán
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Iontophoresis
  • transdermal
  • ocular
  • non-invasive sampling
  • controlled drug delivery
  • electro-osmosis
  • electrorepulsion
  • nail-delivery
  • dental-delivery

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone (hGH) and the Combination Effect of a New Type Microneedle, Tappy Tok Tok®
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030153
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Transdermal drug administration presents several advantages and it is therefore favorable as an alternative drug delivery route. However, transdermal delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs is made difficult by the skin barrier. Microneedle application and iontophoresis are strategies which can be used to overcome this
[...] Read more.
Transdermal drug administration presents several advantages and it is therefore favorable as an alternative drug delivery route. However, transdermal delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs is made difficult by the skin barrier. Microneedle application and iontophoresis are strategies which can be used to overcome this barrier. Therefore, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was used as a model macromolecular drug and was transdermally delivered using microneedle application and iontophoresis. Methylene blue staining, stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging were used to characterize the microchannels produced. To optimize the iontophoresis protocol, the effects of molecular charge and current density on transdermal delivery were evaluated in an in vitro permeation study using excised rat skin tissues. Using the optimized iontophoresis protocol, the combination effects of iontophoretic delivery via microchannels were evaluated in three different experimental designs. The flux obtained with anodal iontophoresis in citrate buffer was approximately 10-fold higher that that with cathodal iontophoresis in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Flux also increased with current density in anodal iontophoresis. The combination of iontophoresis and microneedle application produced higher flux than single application. These results suggest that anodal iontophoresis with higher current density enhances the permeation of macromolecules through microchannels created by microneedles. In conclusion, the combination of iontophoresis and microneedles is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transdermal delivery of macromolecular drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrically and Ultrasonically Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Methotrexate
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030117
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we used sonophoresis and iontophoresis to enhance the in vitro delivery of methotrexate through human cadaver skin. Iontophoresis was applied for 60 min at a 0.4 mA/sq·cm current density, while low-frequency sonophoresis was applied at a 20 kHz frequency (2
[...] Read more.
In this study, we used sonophoresis and iontophoresis to enhance the in vitro delivery of methotrexate through human cadaver skin. Iontophoresis was applied for 60 min at a 0.4 mA/sq·cm current density, while low-frequency sonophoresis was applied at a 20 kHz frequency (2 min application, and 6.9 W/sq·cm intensity). The treated skin was characterized by dye binding, transepidermal water loss, skin electrical resistance, and skin temperature measurement. Both sonophoresis and iontophoresis resulted in a significant reduction in skin electrical resistance as well as a marked increase in transepidermal water loss value (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ultrasonic waves resulted in a significant increase in skin temperature (p < 0.05). In permeation studies, the use of iontophoresis led to a significantly higher drug permeability than the untreated group (n = 4, p < 0.05). The skin became markedly more permeable to methotrexate after the treatment by sonophoresis than by iontophoresis (p < 0.01). A synergistic effect for the combined application of sonophoresis and iontophoresis was also observed. Drug distribution in the skin layers revealed a significantly higher level of methotrexate in the sonicated skin than that in iontophoresis and untreated groups. Iontophoresis and low-frequency sonophoresis were found to enhance the transdermal and intradermal delivery of methotrexate in vitro. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Iontophoretic Drug Delivery in the Oral Cavity
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030121
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Iontophoresis is a noninvasive method to enhance systemic and local drug delivery by the application of an electric field. For systemic drug delivery in the oral cavity, iontophoresis was studied primarily for transbuccal delivery. Significant enhancement of drug delivery was observed in buccal
[...] Read more.
Iontophoresis is a noninvasive method to enhance systemic and local drug delivery by the application of an electric field. For systemic drug delivery in the oral cavity, iontophoresis was studied primarily for transbuccal delivery. Significant enhancement of drug delivery was observed in buccal iontophoresis compared to passive transport for different drugs. For local drug delivery in the oral cavity, iontophoresis could enhance drug penetration into the enamel, dentin, and other oral tissues for the treatment of oral diseases. Iontophoresis was evaluated in dentistry such as to produce local anesthesia and treat tooth decalcification and hypersensitivity, but this technology has not been fully utilized. The most common drugs in these evaluations were fluoride and lidocaine. In general, there is limited knowledge of the mechanisms of iontophoresis in the oral tissues. In vivo animal and human studies have suggested that iontophoresis is safe in the oral cavity under the conditions investigated. The present review covers the topics of iontophoretic drug delivery in the oral cavity for both systemic and local treatments. The anatomy and diseases in the oral cavity for iontophoretic drug delivery are also briefly reviewed, and the challenges for this drug delivery method are discussed. Full article
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