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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 117;

Electrically and Ultrasonically Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Methotrexate

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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In this study, we used sonophoresis and iontophoresis to enhance the in vitro delivery of methotrexate through human cadaver skin. Iontophoresis was applied for 60 min at a 0.4 mA/sq·cm current density, while low-frequency sonophoresis was applied at a 20 kHz frequency (2 min application, and 6.9 W/sq·cm intensity). The treated skin was characterized by dye binding, transepidermal water loss, skin electrical resistance, and skin temperature measurement. Both sonophoresis and iontophoresis resulted in a significant reduction in skin electrical resistance as well as a marked increase in transepidermal water loss value (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ultrasonic waves resulted in a significant increase in skin temperature (p < 0.05). In permeation studies, the use of iontophoresis led to a significantly higher drug permeability than the untreated group (n = 4, p < 0.05). The skin became markedly more permeable to methotrexate after the treatment by sonophoresis than by iontophoresis (p < 0.01). A synergistic effect for the combined application of sonophoresis and iontophoresis was also observed. Drug distribution in the skin layers revealed a significantly higher level of methotrexate in the sonicated skin than that in iontophoresis and untreated groups. Iontophoresis and low-frequency sonophoresis were found to enhance the transdermal and intradermal delivery of methotrexate in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: iontophoresis; sonophoresis; characterization; methotrexate; transdermal delivery iontophoresis; sonophoresis; characterization; methotrexate; transdermal delivery

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nguyen, H.X.; Banga, A.K. Electrically and Ultrasonically Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Methotrexate. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 117.

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