Special Issue "Anisakiasis and Anisakidae"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 9875

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francisco Javier Adroher
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
Interests: Anisakiasis; Anisakis; anisakids; epidemiology, culture, biology, energetic metabolism, differentiation, development
Prof. Dr. Rocío Benítez-Rodríguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071-Granada, Spain
Interests: Anisakiasis; Anisakis; epidemiology; biology
Dr. Manuel Morales-Yuste
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: anisakis; leishmania; phlebotomidae; epidemiology; molecular identification

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues:

Human anisakidosis/anisakiasis is acquired by the ingestion of viable anisakid larvae in fish and squid, especially of the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova. A single larva can cause nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, etc.) and mild to severe pain. When an individual has been previously sensitised, successive contacts with the parasite may result in mild to severe allergic symptoms. This disease may be related to other conditions such as stomach cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to know the infection process and the human response to it, and to know the aetiological agents and their interaction with humans in order to develop new, more reliable, rapid diagnostic techniques and treatments which could help to reduce underdiagnosis. It is also important to understand the sources of the parasite and the risk of human infection, and especially the methods that the fishing, processing, and canning industry—including fish farming—should use to detect the parasite and eliminate or minimise the risk of both infection and allergy for the consumer of these products, whether processed or not.

There is still a long way to go to be able to solve the challenges ahead. New omics techniques are helping to open horizons in all these fields. With the publication of this Special Issue we aim to make a significant contribution of interest to the scientific, medical, veterinary, technical, and industrial communities.

The aim of the Special Issue will be to collect the most updated studies on anisakidosis/anisakiasis and the anisakids causing it (especially genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova) focused, but not exclusively, on:

- Advances in anisakid biology, molecular epidemiology, genomics, development.

- Anisakid–host interaction (human, marine mammals, fish, cephalopods, crustaceans).

- Advances in anisakidosis pathogenesis, pathology and clinics, allergy, new diagnostic tools and the search for molecular markers of infection/contact for early and easier diagnosis.

- Advances for the potential development of new treatments, immunotherapy and immunoprevention in their hosts.

- Human epidemiology; underdiagnosis and methods to reduce it.                                        

- Relationship of anisakidosis with other pathologies.                                                         

- Detection in fish: problems and solutions for the fishing industry, including fish farming.

- New technologies applied to anisakids and anisakidosis/anisakiasis research.

- Any other contributions that provide knowledge to effectively fight these infections.

Prof. Dr. Francisco Javier Adroher
Prof. Dr. Rocío Benítez-Rodríguez
Dr. Manuel Morales-Yuste
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Anisakis Infection in the Spotted Flounder Citharus linguatula (Pleuronectiformes: Citharidae) Caught in the Gulf of Cadiz (Area FAO 27-ICES IXa) Appears to Negatively Affect Fish Growth
Pathogens 2022, 11(12), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11121432 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Spotted flounder (Citharus linguatula L.) caught in the Gulf of Cadiz (area FAO 27 ICES IXa) were examined for Anisakis larvae and to assess the possible risk of anisakiasis in humans through consumption of this fish. Larvae of the genera Anisakis and [...] Read more.
Spotted flounder (Citharus linguatula L.) caught in the Gulf of Cadiz (area FAO 27 ICES IXa) were examined for Anisakis larvae and to assess the possible risk of anisakiasis in humans through consumption of this fish. Larvae of the genera Anisakis and Hysterothylacium were identified in the analysis of 128 purchased fish specimens. All Anisakis larvae corresponded to type I. Molecular analysis showed the presence of A. pegreffii, A. simplex s.s., and recombinant genotype between the two. The prevalence of Anisakis was 9.4% with a mean intensity of 1.42, while for Hysterothylacium the values were 12.5% and 1.06. The length and weight of the fish, but not Fulton’s condition factor, varied significantly between infected and uninfected fish. The prevalence of Anisakis increased with fish length, with no fish parasitized with Anisakis measuring less than 15.5 cm (2–2.5 years old), which is probably related to the reported dietary change of these fish at around 2 years of age. Fish not parasitized with any of these nematodes showed positive allometric growth, while those parasitized only with Anisakis showed negative allometric growth. When comparing both groups including only fish ≥ 15.5 cm (the smallest size of Anisakis-infected fish), the difference is shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.01), suggesting that Anisakis infection of spotted flounder negatively affects fish growth even when parasite intensity is low, which may have important economic repercussions. Finally, the low prevalence and, above all, intensity of Anisakis in these fish, as well as the habit of consuming this fish fried in oil in our geographical area, means that the risk of acquiring anisakiasis through consumption of this fish is low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
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Article
Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells Stimulated with Anisakis Messengers of Pathogenicity
Pathogens 2022, 11(10), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11101214 - 20 Oct 2022
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Abstract
Background: Anisakis spp. third-stage larvae (L3) are the causative agents of human zoonosis called anisakiasis. The accidental ingestion of L3 can cause acute and chronic inflammation at the gastric, intestinal, or ectopic levels. Despite its relevance in public health, studies on pathogenetic [...] Read more.
Background: Anisakis spp. third-stage larvae (L3) are the causative agents of human zoonosis called anisakiasis. The accidental ingestion of L3 can cause acute and chronic inflammation at the gastric, intestinal, or ectopic levels. Despite its relevance in public health, studies on pathogenetic mechanisms and parasite-human interplay are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the human inflammatory response to different Anisakis vehicles of pathogenicity. Methods: Human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were exposed to Anisakis L3 (the initial contact with the host), extracellular vesicles (EVs, Anisakis–host communication), and crude extract (CE, the larval dying). The protein quantity and gene expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) were investigated using an ELISA test (6 h and 24 h) and a qReal-Time PCR (1 h, 6 h, and 24 h), respectively. Results: The L3 and EVs induced a downregulation in both the Il-6 and Il-8 gene expression and protein quantity. On the contrary, the CE stimulated IL-6 gene expression and its protein release, not affecting IL-8. Conclusions: The Caco-2 cells seemed to not react to the exposure to the L3 and EVs, suggesting a parasite’s immunomodulating action to remain alive in an inhospitable niche. Conversely, the dying larva (CE) could induce strong activation of the immune strategy of the host that, in vivo, would lead to parasite expulsion, eosinophilia, and/or granuloma formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
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Article
Anisakid Nematodes and Potential Risk of Human Anisakiasis through the Consumption of Hake, Merluccius spp., Sold Fresh in Spanish Supermarkets
Pathogens 2022, 11(6), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060622 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Nematode parasite species belonging to the Anisakis simplex complex are the most important cause of human anisakiasis through the consumption of (mainly) undercooked, previously not frozen, or conveniently treated fish. In Spain, the consumption of hake has been recognized as an important source [...] Read more.
Nematode parasite species belonging to the Anisakis simplex complex are the most important cause of human anisakiasis through the consumption of (mainly) undercooked, previously not frozen, or conveniently treated fish. In Spain, the consumption of hake has been recognized as an important source of this parasitosis. With the aim of shedding light on the risk factors that can influence the potential risk of human anisakiasis in Spain through the consumption of fresh hake sold by nationwide supermarket chains, a total of 536 small hake specimens belonging to the species Merluccius bilinearis caught off the Northeast American coasts and Merluccius merluccius caught in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean waters was analysed. Anisakids morphologically identified as Anisakis type I were found as the most prevalent and the most abundant species and were considered the main potential cause of human anisakiasis. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors concerning the hake, such as its origin and season of capture, its size, as well as the days passed between its capture and consumption, should be taken into account to avoid this human parasitosis. It is essential that consumers have access to fish label information which should include, as regulated by the European Commission, traceability data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
Article
The Influence of Contracaecum larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) Parasitism on the Population of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) in Lake Sakadaš, Croatia
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050600 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Contracaecum larvae are geographically widely distributed, utilizing many animal species as hosts; and fish represent an important paratenic host in their life cycle. Their presence in Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) was studied in Lake Sakadaš (Croatia) in 2017 and 2018. Two [...] Read more.
Contracaecum larvae are geographically widely distributed, utilizing many animal species as hosts; and fish represent an important paratenic host in their life cycle. Their presence in Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) was studied in Lake Sakadaš (Croatia) in 2017 and 2018. Two gill nets of different sizes submerged during a 12-h period were used to collect the fish. Contracaecum larvae were recorded in the stomach, slightly coiled or elongated on the intestine serosa or encapsulated in a gut wall of 20 individuals. The effect of Contracaecum sp. on the health of their host was determined by estimating the effect of the parasites’ presence, number, and biomass on fish length, weight, and the Fulton’s condition factor (CF). Infected fish showed negative (b < 3; p < 0.05) and uninfected fish positive allometric growth (b > 3; p < 0.05). Fish weight and CF in infected individuals were significantly low in comparison to the uninfected ones (Mann–Whitney U test: U = 1078.00, U = 423.50, respectively; p < 0.004). These results emphasize the importance of evaluating parasitic nematode presence in economically important fish species. Even more, if this endoparasite has a detectable negative impact on a resilient species such as the Prussian carp, it is important to monitor its occurrence in other fish species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
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Article
Proteomic Profiling and In Silico Characterization of the Secretome of Anisakis simplex Sensu Stricto L3 Larvae
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020246 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) L3 larvae are one of the major etiological factors of human anisakiasis, which is one of the most important foodborne parasitic diseases. Nevertheless, to date, Anisakis secretome proteins, with important functions in nematode pathogenicity and host-parasite interactions, have [...] Read more.
Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) L3 larvae are one of the major etiological factors of human anisakiasis, which is one of the most important foodborne parasitic diseases. Nevertheless, to date, Anisakis secretome proteins, with important functions in nematode pathogenicity and host-parasite interactions, have not been extensively explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and characterize the excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of A. simplex L3 larvae. ES proteins of A. simplex were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, and the identified proteins were then analyzed using bioinformatics tools. A total of 158 proteins were detected. Detailed bioinformatic characterization of ES proteins was performed, including Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, identification of enzymes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis, protein family classification, secretory pathway prediction, and detection of essential proteins. Furthermore, of all detected ES proteins, 1 was identified as an allergen, which was Ani s 4, and 18 were potential allergens, most of which were homologs of nematode and arthropod allergens. Nine potential pathogenicity-related proteins were predicted, which were predominantly homologs of chaperones. In addition, predicted host-parasite interactions between the Anisakis ES proteins and both human and fish proteins were identified. In conclusion, this study represents the first global analysis of Anisakis ES proteins. The findings provide a better understanding of survival and invasion strategies of A. simplex L3 larvae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
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Article
Molecular Epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in Wedge Sole, Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881), from Fishmarkets in Granada (Southern Spain), Caught in Two Adjacent NE and CE Atlantic Areas
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101302 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
The presence of third stage larvae (L3) of Anisakis spp. in wedge sole, Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881), purchased in fishmarkets in the city of Granada (Andalusia, southern Spain) was assessed. The wedge sole were caught in two FAO zones: area 27.IXa NE Atlantic [...] Read more.
The presence of third stage larvae (L3) of Anisakis spp. in wedge sole, Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881), purchased in fishmarkets in the city of Granada (Andalusia, southern Spain) was assessed. The wedge sole were caught in two FAO zones: area 27.IXa NE Atlantic (SW Spain coast) and area 34.1.11 CE Atlantic (NW Morocco coast). Only Anisakis larvae, type I, were detected in the largest fish (>20 cm) from the CE Atlantic. These were molecularly identified as A. simplex s.s. The prevalence (P) of Anisakis in this area was 12.5% and the mean intensity (MI) was 1. The presence of Hysterothylacium spp. larvae was also detected in the fish from both areas, with the prevalence being approximately double in the CE Atlantic area (12.5 vs. 5.7). A comparison between the Anisakis-infected and non-infected fish from this area showed that the former were significantly longer than the latter (p < 0.01). These results show that Anisakis parasitization of wedge sole sold in the markets of the city of Granada is of low prevalence and intensity (P = 4.5, MI = 1), especially in those from area 27.IXa (P = 0), indicating that the risk of human infection is low, particularly as this fish is traditionally prepared by deep-frying in oil in Andalusia (southern Spain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
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Review

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Review
Anisakis, Something Is Moving inside the Fish
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030326 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
The first case of human infection by a species of the Anisakidae family was reported more than 60 years ago. Over the last 20 years, Anisakis has become a highly studied parasite, not only for its parasitism, but also for its role as [...] Read more.
The first case of human infection by a species of the Anisakidae family was reported more than 60 years ago. Over the last 20 years, Anisakis has become a highly studied parasite, not only for its parasitism, but also for its role as an inducer of allergic reactions. Several studies have indicated that the pathological changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract during infection with Anisakis simplex are the combined result of the direct action of the larvae invading the tissue and the complex interaction between the host’s immune system and the parasite. Although the most commonly described pathologies are digestive, urticaria/angioedema and anaphylaxis, occupational asthma and arthritis have been seldom described. This paper is a narrative of the immune-mediated reaction induced by this parasite over the course of the last two decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
Review
What Do In Vitro and In Vivo Models Tell Us about Anisakiasis? New Tools Still to Be Explored
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030285 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Anisakiasis is a zoonosis caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked seafood infected with third-stage larvae (L3) of the marine nematode Anisakis. Based on L3 localization in human accidental hosts, gastric, intestinal or ectopic (extra-gastrointestinal) anisakiasis can occur, in association with [...] Read more.
Anisakiasis is a zoonosis caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked seafood infected with third-stage larvae (L3) of the marine nematode Anisakis. Based on L3 localization in human accidental hosts, gastric, intestinal or ectopic (extra-gastrointestinal) anisakiasis can occur, in association with mild to severe symptoms of an allergic nature. Given the increasing consumption of fish worldwide, the European Food Safety Authority declared Anisakis as an emerging pathogen. Despite its importance for public health and economy, the scientific literature is largely characterized by taxonomic, systematic and ecological studies, while investigations on clinical aspects, such as the inflammatory and immune response during anisakiasis, using a proper model that simulates the niche of infection are still very scarce. The aims of this review are to describe the clinical features of anisakiasis, to report the main evidence from the in vivo and in vitro studies carried out to date, highlighting limitations, and to propose future perspectives in the study field of anisakiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anisakiasis and Anisakidae)
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