Special Issue "Wheat Diseases"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Shaobin Zhong
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
Interests: Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat; Fungal Biology and Genetics; Genomics and Functional Genomics of Host-Pathogen Interaction in Cereal Crops

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wheat is a major food crop contributing approximately 20 % of the total dietary calories and proteins worldwide. However, the crop has been affected by a number of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses during field production and post-harvesting. Some of the diseases are devastating and cause huge economic losses by significantly reducing grain yields and qualities. Understanding of biology of the pathogens, genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance/susceptibility of the host, interactions between the pathogens and the host, and environmental conditions impacting disease development is essential for developing novel strategies to control wheat diseases.

Recent years have seen a great progress in studies of wheat diseases at the population, individual, cellular, and molecular levels. We invite you to contribute original research articles as well as review articles on any aspects related to pathogenicity and virulence of the pathogens, resistance and susceptibility of the crop to the diseases, genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying wheat-pathogen interaction, as well as disease epidemiology and management in wheat. This special issue will focus on the latest progress, concepts, and innovative approaches that promote our understanding and management of wheat diseases.

Prof. Shaobin Zhong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Fungal, bacterial and viral diseases
  • Pathogenicity gene
  • Virulence gene
  • Effectors
  • Disease susceptibility genes
  • Disease resistance genes
  • Gene for gene interaction

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Characterizing Virulence of the Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Isolates Lacking Both ToxA and ToxB Genes
Pathogens 2018, 7(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030074 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) causes tan spot of wheat crops, which is an important disease worldwide. Based on the production of the three known necrotrophic effectors (NEs), the fungal isolates are classified into eight races with race 4 producing no [...] Read more.
The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) causes tan spot of wheat crops, which is an important disease worldwide. Based on the production of the three known necrotrophic effectors (NEs), the fungal isolates are classified into eight races with race 4 producing no known NEs. From a laboratory cross between 86–124 (race 2 carrying the ToxA gene for the production of Ptr ToxA) and DW5 (race 5 carrying the ToxB gene for the production of Ptr ToxB), we have obtained some Ptr isolates lacking both the ToxA and ToxB genes, which, by definition, should be classified as race 4. In this work, we characterized virulence of two of these isolates called B16 and B17 by inoculating them onto various common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (T. turgidum L.) genotypes. It was found that the two isolates still caused disease on some genotypes of both common and durum wheat. Disease evaluations were also conducted in recombinant inbred line populations derived from two hard red winter wheat cultivars: Harry and Wesley. QTL mapping in this population revealed that three genomic regions were significantly associated with disease, which are different from the three known NE sensitivity loci. This result further indicates the existence of other NE-host sensitivity gene interactions in the wheat tan spot disease system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
An Extract Purified from the Mycelium of a Tomato Wilt-Controlling Strain of Fusarium sambucinum Can Protect Wheat against Fusarium and Common Root Rots
Pathogens 2018, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030061 - 14 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
An approach to manage seed-transmitted Fusarium crown-foot-root rot (FCR, Fusarium spp.) and common root rot (CRR, Bipolaris sorokiniana) on wheat, avoiding environmental risks of chemicals, is seed treatments with microbial metabolites. F. sambucinum strain FS-94 that induces resistance to tomato wilt was [...] Read more.
An approach to manage seed-transmitted Fusarium crown-foot-root rot (FCR, Fusarium spp.) and common root rot (CRR, Bipolaris sorokiniana) on wheat, avoiding environmental risks of chemicals, is seed treatments with microbial metabolites. F. sambucinum strain FS-94 that induces resistance to tomato wilt was shown by this study to be a source of non-fungitoxic wheat-protecting metabolites, which were contained in a mycelium extract purified by gel-chromatography and ultrafiltration. Plant-protecting effect of the purified mycelial extract (PME) was demonstrated in vegetation experiments using a rolled-towel assay and by small-plot field trials. To elucidate mechanisms putatively underlying PME protective activity, tests with cultured Triticum aestivum and T. kiharae cells, particularly the extracellular alkalinization assay, as well as gene expression analysis in germinated wheat seeds were used. Pre-inoculation treatments of seeds with PME significantly decreased the incidence (from 30 to 40%) and severity (from 37 to 50%) of root rots on seedlings without any inhibition of the seed germination and potentiation of deoxynivalenol (DON), DON monoacetylated derivatives and zearalenon production in FCR agents. In vegetation experiments, reductions in the DON production were observed with doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/mL of PME. Pre-sowing PME application on seeds of two spring wheat cultivars naturally infected with FCR and CRR provided the mitigation of both diseases under field conditions during four growing seasons (2013–2016). PME-induced ion exchange response in cultured wheat cells, their increased survivability, and up-regulated expression of some defensins’ genes in PME-exposed seedlings allow the suggestion of the plant-mediated character of disease-controlling effect observed in field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Diseases)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Quantitative Proteomics View on the Function of Qfhb1, a Major QTL for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Wheat
Pathogens 2018, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030058 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a highly detrimental disease of wheat. A quantitative trait locus for FHB resistance, Qfhb1, is the most utilized source of resistance in wheat-breeding programs, but very little is known about its resistance mechanism. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a highly detrimental disease of wheat. A quantitative trait locus for FHB resistance, Qfhb1, is the most utilized source of resistance in wheat-breeding programs, but very little is known about its resistance mechanism. In this study, we elucidated a prospective FHB resistance mechanism by investigating the proteomic signatures of Qfhb1 in a pair of contrasting wheat near-isogenic lines (NIL) after 24 h of inoculation of wheat florets by Fusarium graminearum. Statistical comparisons of the abundances of protein spots on the 2D-DIGE gels of contrasting NILs (fhb1+ NIL = Qfhb1 present; fhb1- NIL = Qfhb1 absent) enabled us to select 80 high-ranking differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots. An additional evaluation confirmed that the DAP spots were specific to the spikelet from fhb1- NIL (50 spots), and fhb1+ NIL (seven spots). The proteomic data also suggest that the absence of Qfhb1 makes the fhb1- NIL vulnerable to Fusarium attack by constitutively impairing several mechanisms including sucrose homeostasis by enhancing starch synthesis from sucrose. In the absence of Qfhb1, Fusarium inoculations severely damaged photosynthetic machinery; altered the metabolism of carbohydrates, nitrogen and phenylpropanoids; disrupted the balance of proton gradients across relevant membranes; disturbed the homeostasis of many important signaling molecules induced the mobility of cellular repair; and reduced translational activities. These changes in the fhb1- NIL led to strong defense responses centered on the hypersensitive response (HSR), resulting in infected cells suicide and the consequent initiation of FHB development. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that Qfhb1 largely functions to either alleviate HSR or to manipulate the host cells to not respond to Fusarium infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Indices in Wheat Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and Protein Quality Influenced by FHB
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040059 - 20 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Very little is known about the physiological interactions between wheat quality and Fusarium head blight (FHB), which substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. In order to investigate stress-induced changes in flag leaves from plants artificially inoculated with Fusarium, we screened [...] Read more.
Very little is known about the physiological interactions between wheat quality and Fusarium head blight (FHB), which substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. In order to investigate stress-induced changes in flag leaves from plants artificially inoculated with Fusarium, we screened for chlorophyll a fluorescence transient at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after Fusarium inoculation. Our results indicate that the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the performance index (PI) were not affected by FHB, but there were significant differences in those two traits between different varieties and measurement times. FHB caused a significant reduction in the percentage of glutenins (GLU), high-molecular-weight (HMW), and low-molecular-weight (LMW) subunits in ‘Kraljica’ and ‘Golubica’, unlike ‘Vulkan’, where the percentage of GLU increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat Diseases)
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