Special Issue "Translational Research for Zoonotic Parasites: New Findings toward Improved Diagnostics, Therapy and Prevention"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vito Colella
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Interests: Zoonoses; One Health; Parasitic Diseases; Epidemiology; Prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several factors, including social, demographic and economic transformation, and human-mediated environmental alteration, are influencing the (re-)emergence of zoonoses, posing new challenges in how we detect, treat, and prevent such diseases.

The rapid scientific development of next generation sequencing and omics techniques and the introduction of high-throughput methods have radically changed how we perform research. However, enhanced collaborations among researchers with different expertise are necessary to integrate such disparate breakthroughs into holistic practices.

As an example, the development of portable genome sequencing technology for the detection and sequencing of the Ebola virus during the recent outbreaks in West Africa has facilitated and accelerated the implementation of Ebola surveillance to prevent and monitor further outbreaks. The importance of these developments are further highlighted as we currently experience the progression of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak.

Translational research involves the multidisciplinary integration of fundamental, clinical, population, and policy-based research to expedite scientific discoveries with the aim of generating benefits at the patient and community levels, thereby eliminating the roadblock between bench findings and field applications.

The aim of this Special Issue, Translational Research for Zoonotic Parasites: New Findings of Improved Diagnostics, Therapy, and Prevention, is to explore the current research landscape and highlight recent findings that may impact how we detect and diagnose zoonotic parasites as well as how we treat and prevent the diseases they cause.

Submissions of either original research articles, including short communications and detailed case reports on challenging scenarios, or reviews summarizing different aspects of translational research for zoonotic parasites, are welcome. 

I look forward to your contributions.

Dr. Vito Colella
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Translational research
  • Technologies
  • Zoonoses
  • One Health
  • Parasitic diseases
  • Diagnostics
  • Prevention

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Non-Invasive Molecular Survey of Sarcoptic Mange in Wildlife: Diagnostic Performance in Wolf Faecal Samples Evaluated by Multi-Event Capture–Recapture Models
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020243 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Sarcoptic mange is globally enzootic, and non-invasive methods with high diagnostic specificity for its surveillance in wildlife are lacking. We describe the molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in non-invasively collected faecal samples, targeting the 16S rDNA gene. We applied this method to 843 [...] Read more.
Sarcoptic mange is globally enzootic, and non-invasive methods with high diagnostic specificity for its surveillance in wildlife are lacking. We describe the molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in non-invasively collected faecal samples, targeting the 16S rDNA gene. We applied this method to 843 Iberian wolf Canis lupus signatus faecal samples collected in north-western Portugal (2006–2018). We further integrated this with serological data (61 samples from wolf and 20 from red fox Vulpes vulpes, 1997–2019) in multi-event capture–recapture models. The mean predicted prevalence by the molecular analysis of wolf faecal samples from 2006–2018 was 7.2% (CI95 5.0–9.4%; range: 2.6–11.7%), highest in 2009. The mean predicted seroprevalence in wolves was 24.5% (CI95 18.5–30.6%; range: 13.0–55.0%), peaking in 2006–2009. Multi-event capture–recapture models estimated 100% diagnostic specificity and moderate diagnostic sensitivity (30.0%, CI95 14.0–53.0%) for the molecular method. Mange-infected individually identified wolves showed a tendency for higher mortality versus uninfected wolves (ΔMortality 0.150, CI95 −0.165–0.458). Long-term serology data highlights the endemicity of sarcoptic mange in wild canids but uncovers multi-year epidemics. This study developed and evaluated a novel method for surveying sarcoptic mange in wildlife populations by the molecular detection of S. scabiei in faecal samples, which stands out for its high specificity and non-invasive character. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antitrypanosomal and Antileishmanial Activity of Chalcones and Flavanones from Polygonum salicifolium
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020175 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a group of neglected parasitic diseases caused by several species of parasites belonging to the family Trypansomatida. The present study investigated the antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity of chalcones and flavanones from Polygonum salicifolium, which grows in the wetlands [...] Read more.
Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a group of neglected parasitic diseases caused by several species of parasites belonging to the family Trypansomatida. The present study investigated the antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity of chalcones and flavanones from Polygonum salicifolium, which grows in the wetlands of Iraq. The phytochemical evaluation of the plant yielded two chalcones, 2′,4′-dimethoxy-6′-hydroxychalcone and 2′,5′-dimethoxy-4′,6′-dihydroxychalcone, and two flavanones, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone and 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxyflavanone. The chalcones showed a good antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity while the flavanones were inactive. The EC50 values for 2′,4′-dimethoxy-6′-hydroxychalcone against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (0.5 μg/mL), T. congolense (2.5 μg/mL), and Leishmania mexicana (5.2 μg/mL) indicated it was the most active of the compounds. None of the compounds displayed any toxicity against a human cell line, even at 100 µg/mL, or cross-resistance with first line clinical trypanocides, such as diamidines and melaminophenyl arsenicals. Taken together, our study provides significant data in relation to the activity of chalcones and flavanones from P. salicifolium against both parasites in vitro. Further future research is suggested in order to investigate the mode of action of the extracted chalcones against the parasites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integrative Approach to Phlebotomus mascittii Grassi, 1908: First Record in Vienna with New Morphological and Molecular Insights
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121032 - 09 Dec 2020
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are blood-feeding insects that transmit the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and various arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses. While in Mediterranean parts of Europe the sand fly fauna is diverse, in Central European countries including Austria mainly Phlebotomus mascittii is found, [...] Read more.
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are blood-feeding insects that transmit the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and various arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses. While in Mediterranean parts of Europe the sand fly fauna is diverse, in Central European countries including Austria mainly Phlebotomus mascittii is found, an assumed but unproven vector of Leishmania infantum. To update the currently understudied sand fly distribution in Austria, a sand fly survey was performed and other entomological catches were screened for sand flies. Seven new trapping locations of Ph. mascittii are reported including the first record in Vienna, representing also one of the first findings of this species in a city. Morphological identification, supported by fluorescence microscopy, was confirmed by two molecular approaches, including sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein profiling. Sand fly occurrence and activity were evaluated based on surveyed locations, habitat requirements and climatic parameters. Moreover, a first comparison of European Ph. mascittii populations was made by two marker genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), and cytochrome b (cytb), as well as MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Our study provides new important records of Ph. mascittii in Austria and valuable data for prospective entomological surveys. MALDI-TOF MS protein profiling was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation between sand fly species. Rising temperatures and globalization demand for regular entomological surveys to monitor changes in species distribution and composition. This is also important with respect to the possible vector competence of Ph. mascittii. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Begging the Question”—Does Toxocara Infection/Exposure Associate with Multiple Sclerosis-Risk?
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110938 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 416
Abstract
Although the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear, infectious agents, including some parasitic roundworms (nematodes), have been proposed as possible risk factors or contributors. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies to evaluate whether there is a [...] Read more.
Although the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear, infectious agents, including some parasitic roundworms (nematodes), have been proposed as possible risk factors or contributors. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies to evaluate whether there is a possible association between infection with, or exposure to, one or more members of the genus Toxocara (phylum Nematoda; superfamily Ascaridoidea) and MS. We undertook a search of public literature databases to identify relevant studies and then used a random-effects meta-analysis model to generate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This search identified six of a total of 1371 articles that were relevant to the topic; these published studies involved totals of 473 MS patients and 647 control subjects. Anti-Toxocara IgG serum antibodies were detected in 62 MS patients and 37 controls, resulting in respective seroprevalences of 13.1% (95% CI: 8.2–20.3) and 4.8% (95% CI: 2.5–9.2), indicating an association (pooled OR, 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46–6.21). Because of the publication bias identified (six eligible studies), well-designed and -controlled studies are required in the future to rigorously test the hypothesis that Toxocara infection/exposure has an association with MS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Sensitive Virome Characterization of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens Complex from Central Europe and the Caribbean Reveals Potential for Interspecies Viral Transmission
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090686 - 21 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Mosquitoes are the most important vectors for arthropod-borne viral diseases. Mixed viral infections of mosquitoes allow genetic recombination or reassortment of diverse viruses, turning mosquitoes into potential virologic mixing bowls. In this study, we field-collected mosquitoes of different species (Aedes aegypti and [...] Read more.
Mosquitoes are the most important vectors for arthropod-borne viral diseases. Mixed viral infections of mosquitoes allow genetic recombination or reassortment of diverse viruses, turning mosquitoes into potential virologic mixing bowls. In this study, we field-collected mosquitoes of different species (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex), from different geographic locations and environments (central Europe and the Caribbean) for highly sensitive next-generation sequencing-based virome characterization. We found a rich virus community associated with a great diversity of host species. Among those, we detected a large diversity of novel virus sequences that we could predominately assign to circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, including the full-length genome of a yet undescribed Gemykrogvirus species. Moreover, we report for the first time the detection of a potentially zoonotic CRESS-DNA virus (Cyclovirus VN) in mosquito vectors. This study expands the knowledge on virus diversity in medically important mosquito vectors, especially for CRESS-DNA viruses that have previously been shown to easily recombine and jump the species barrier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biotic Factors Influence Microbiota of Nymph Ticks from Vegetation in Sydney, Australia
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070566 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Ticks are haematophagous ectoparasites of medical and veterinary significance due to their excellent vector capacity. Modern sequencing techniques enabled the rapid sequencing of bacterial pathogens and symbionts. This study’s aims were two-fold; to determine the nymph diversity in Sydney, and to determine whether [...] Read more.
Ticks are haematophagous ectoparasites of medical and veterinary significance due to their excellent vector capacity. Modern sequencing techniques enabled the rapid sequencing of bacterial pathogens and symbionts. This study’s aims were two-fold; to determine the nymph diversity in Sydney, and to determine whether external biotic factors affect the microbiota. Tick DNA was isolated, and the molecular identity was determined for nymphs at the cox1 level. The tick DNA was subjected to high throughput DNA sequencing to determine the bacterial profile and the impact of biotic factors on the microbiota. Four nymph tick species were recovered from Sydney, NSW: Haemaphysalis bancrofti, Ixodes holocyclus, Ixodes trichosuri and Ixodes tasmani. Biotic factors, notably tick species and geography, were found to have a significance influence on the microbiota. The microbial analyses revealed that Sydney ticks display a core microbiota. The dominating endosymbionts among all tick species were Candidatus Midichloria sp. Ixholo1 and Candidatus Midichloria sp. Ixholo2. A novel Candidatus Midichloria sp. OTU_2090 was only found in I. holocyclus ticks (nymph: 96.3%, adult: 75.6%). Candidatus Neoehrlichia australis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia arcana was recovered from I. holocyclus and one I. trichosuri nymph ticks. Borrelia spp. was absent from all ticks. This study has shown that nymph and adult ticks carry different bacteria, and a tick bite in Sydney, Australia will result in different bacterial transfer depending on tick life stage, tick species and geography. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Diagnostic Tools for the Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Dogs
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060499 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
In the last two decades, reports of canine heartworm (HW) infection have increased even in non-endemic areas, with a large variability in prevalence data due to the diagnostic strategy employed. This study evaluated the relative performance of two microtiter plate ELISA methods for [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, reports of canine heartworm (HW) infection have increased even in non-endemic areas, with a large variability in prevalence data due to the diagnostic strategy employed. This study evaluated the relative performance of two microtiter plate ELISA methods for the detection of HW antigen in determining the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis in a dog population previously tested by the modified Knott’s test and SNAP 4Dx Plus test. The prevalence of this infection in the sheltered dog population (n = 363) from a high-risk area for HW infection was 44.4% according to the modified Knott’s test and 58.1% according to a point-of-care antigen ELISA. All serum samples were then evaluated by a microtiter plate ELISA test performed with and without immune complex dissociation (ICD). The prevalence increased from 56.5% to 79.6% following ICD, indicating a high proportion of samples with immune complexing. Comparing these results to that of the modified Knott’s test, the samples negative for microfilariae (mfs) and those positive only for D. repens mfs demonstrated the greatest increase in the proportion of positive results for D. immitis by ELISA following ICD. While the ICD method is not recommended for routine screening, it may be a valuable secondary strategy for identifying HW infections in dogs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Diagnostic Tests for Onchocerca volvulus in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060435 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Onchocerciasis is diagnosed by detecting microfilariae in skin snips or by detecting OV16 IgG4 antibodies in blood by either enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Here, we compare the sensitivity and specificity of these three tests in persons [...] Read more.
Onchocerciasis is diagnosed by detecting microfilariae in skin snips or by detecting OV16 IgG4 antibodies in blood by either enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Here, we compare the sensitivity and specificity of these three tests in persons with epilepsy living in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Skin snips and blood samples were collected from 285 individuals for onchocerciasis diagnosis. Three tests were performed: the OV16 RDT (SD Bioline) and the OV16 ELISA both on serum samples, and microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips. The sensitivity and specificity of each test was calculated with the combined other tests as a reference. Microfilariae were present in 105 (36.8%) individuals, with a median of 18.5 (6.5–72.0) microfilariae/skin snip. The OV16 RDT and OV16 ELISA were positive in, respectively, 112 (39.3%) and 143 (50.2%) individuals. The OV16 ELISA had the highest sensitivity among the three tests (83%), followed by the OV16 RDT (74.8%) and the skin snip (71.4%). The OV16 RDT had a higher specificity (98.6%) compared to the OV16 ELISA (84.8%). Our study confirms the need to develop more sensitive tests to ensure the accurate detection of ongoing transmission before stopping elimination efforts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Barcoding of the Genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Austria—An Update of the Species Inventory Including the First Records of Three Species in Austria
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050406 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Ceratopogonidae are small nematoceran Diptera with a worldwide distribution, consisting of more than 5400 described species, divided into 125 genera. The genus Culicoides is known to comprise hematophagous vectors of medical and veterinary importance. Diseases transmitted by Culicoides spp. Such as African horse [...] Read more.
Ceratopogonidae are small nematoceran Diptera with a worldwide distribution, consisting of more than 5400 described species, divided into 125 genera. The genus Culicoides is known to comprise hematophagous vectors of medical and veterinary importance. Diseases transmitted by Culicoides spp. Such as African horse sickness virus, Bluetongue virus, equine encephalitis virus (Reoviridae) and Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae) affect large parts of Europe and are strongly linked to the spread and abundance of its vectors. However, Culicoides surveillance measures are not implemented regularly nor in the whole of Austria. In this study, 142 morphologically identified individuals were chosen for molecular analyses (barcoding) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mt COI). Molecular analyses mostly supported previous morphologic identification. Mismatches between results of molecular and morphologic analysis revealed three new Culicoides species in Austria, Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984, which is a member of the Obsoletus group, C. griseidorsum Kieffer, 1918 and C. pallidicornis Kieffer, 1919 as well as possible cryptic species. We present here the first Austrian barcodes of the mt COI region of 26 Culicoides species and conclude that barcoding is a reliable tool with which to support morphologic analysis, especially with regard to the difficult to identify females of the medically and economically important genus Culicoides. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Opportunistic Mapping of Strongyloides stercoralis and Hookworm in Dogs in Remote Australian Communities
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050398 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
Both Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms are common soil-transmitted helminths in remote Australian communities. In addition to infecting humans, S. stercoralis and some species of hookworms infect canids and therefore present both environmental and zoonotic sources of transmission to humans. Currently, there is limited [...] Read more.
Both Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms are common soil-transmitted helminths in remote Australian communities. In addition to infecting humans, S. stercoralis and some species of hookworms infect canids and therefore present both environmental and zoonotic sources of transmission to humans. Currently, there is limited information available on the prevalence of hookworms and S. stercoralis infections in dogs living in communities across the Northern Territory in Australia. In this study, 274 dog faecal samples and 11 faecal samples of unknown origin were collected from the environment and directly from animals across 27 remote communities in Northern and Central Australia. Samples were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of S. stercoralis and four hookworm species: Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma braziliense and Uncinaria stenocephala. The prevalence of S. stercoralis in dogs was found to be 21.9% (60/274). A. caninum was the only hookworm detected in the dog samples, with a prevalence of 31.4% (86/274). This study provides an insight into the prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworms in dogs and informs future intervention and prevention strategies aimed at controlling these parasites in both dogs and humans. A “One Health” approach is crucial for the prevention of these diseases in Australia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Host-Specific Blocking Primer Combined with Optimal DNA Extraction Improves the Detection Capability of a Metabarcoding Protocol for Canine Vector-Borne Bacteria
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040258 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Bacterial canine vector-borne diseases are responsible for some of the most life-threatening conditions of dogs in the tropics and are typically poorly researched with some presenting a zoonotic risk to cohabiting people. Next-generation sequencing based methodologies have been demonstrated to accurately characterise a [...] Read more.
Bacterial canine vector-borne diseases are responsible for some of the most life-threatening conditions of dogs in the tropics and are typically poorly researched with some presenting a zoonotic risk to cohabiting people. Next-generation sequencing based methodologies have been demonstrated to accurately characterise a diverse range of vector-borne bacteria in dogs, whilst also proving to be more sensitive than conventional PCR techniques. We report two improvements to a previously developed metabarcoding tool that increased the sensitivity and diversity of vector-borne bacteria detected from canine blood. Firstly, we developed and tested a canine-specific blocking primer that prevents cross-reactivity of bacterial primer amplification on abundant canine mitochondrial sequences. Use of our blocking primer increased the number of canine vector-borne infections detected (five more Ehrlichia canis and three more Anaplasma platys infections) and increased the diversity of bacterial sequences found. Secondly, the DNA extraction kit employed can have a significant effect on the bacterial community characterised. Therefore, we compared four different DNA extraction kits finding the Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit to be superior for detection of blood-borne bacteria, identifying nine more A. platys, two more E. canis, one more Mycoplasma haemocanis infection and more putative bacterial pathogens than the lowest performing kit. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Descriptive Comparison of ELISAs for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Animals: A Systematic Review
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050605 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is the zoonotic parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis in warm-blooded vertebrates. This systematic review compares and evaluates the available knowledge on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), their components, and performance in detecting T. gondii antibodies in animals. Four databases were searched for published [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is the zoonotic parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis in warm-blooded vertebrates. This systematic review compares and evaluates the available knowledge on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), their components, and performance in detecting T. gondii antibodies in animals. Four databases were searched for published scientific studies on T. gondii and ELISA, and 57 articles were included. Overall, indirect (95%) and in-house (67%) ELISAs were the most used types of test among the studies examined, but the ‘ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect Multi-species’ was common among commercially available tests. Varying diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity) and Kappa agreements were observed depending on the type of sample (serum, meat juice, milk), antigen (native, recombinant, chimeric) and antibody-binding reagents used. Combinations of recombinant and chimeric antigens resulted in better performance than native or single recombinant antigens. Protein A/G appeared to be useful in detecting IgG antibodies in a wide range of animal species due to its non-species-specific binding. One study reported cross-reactivity, with Hammondia hammondi and Eimeria spp. This is the first systematic review to descriptively compare ELISAs for the detection of T. gondii antibodies across different animal species. Full article
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Open AccessReview
One Health Approach to Leishmaniases: Understanding the Disease Dynamics through Diagnostic Tools
Pathogens 2020, 9(10), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100809 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Leishmaniases are zoonotic vector-borne diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect millions of people around the globe. There are various clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to potentially fatal visceral leishmaniasis, all of which are associated with different [...] Read more.
Leishmaniases are zoonotic vector-borne diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect millions of people around the globe. There are various clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to potentially fatal visceral leishmaniasis, all of which are associated with different Leishmania species. Transmission of these parasites is complex due to the varying ecological relationships between human and/or animal reservoir hosts, parasites, and sand fly vectors. Moreover, vector-borne diseases like leishmaniases are intricately linked to environmental changes and socioeconomic risk factors, advocating the importance of the One Health approach to control these diseases. The development of an accurate, fast, and cost-effective diagnostic tool for leishmaniases is a priority, and the implementation of various control measures such as animal sentinel surveillance systems is needed to better detect, prevent, and respond to the (re-)emergence of leishmaniases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mosquito-Borne Diseases Emergence/Resurgence and How to Effectively Control It Biologically
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040310 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Deadly pathogens and parasites are transmitted by vectors and the mosquito is considered the most threatening vector in public health, transmitting these pathogens to humans and animals. We are currently witnessing the emergence/resurgence in new regions/populations of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, such [...] Read more.
Deadly pathogens and parasites are transmitted by vectors and the mosquito is considered the most threatening vector in public health, transmitting these pathogens to humans and animals. We are currently witnessing the emergence/resurgence in new regions/populations of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, such as arboviruses and malaria. This resurgence may be the consequence of numerous complex parameters, but the major cause remains the mismanagement of insecticide use and the emergence of resistance. Biological control programmes have rendered promising results but several highly effective techniques, such as genetic manipulation, remain insufficiently considered as a control mechanism. Currently, new strategies based on attractive toxic sugar baits and new agents, such as Wolbachia and Asaia, are being intensively studied for potential use as alternatives to chemicals. Research into new insecticides, Insect Growth Regulators, and repellent compounds is pressing, and the improvement of biological strategies may provide key solutions to prevent outbreaks, decrease the danger to at-risk populations, and mitigate resistance. Full article
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