Special Issue "SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Samendra Sherchan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Tulane University, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2100 New Orleans, LA 7011, USA
Interests: environmental virology; water quality; treatment; water reuse; public health microbiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the Coronavirus family, has recently emerged from Wuhan, China with a total of 634,835 confirmed cases and 29,957 deaths in more than 100 countries (as of 29 March 2020) [1]. In the US, the total number of cases is 122,653 as of 29 March, with 2112 deaths [2]. The virus causes respiratory tract illnesses, and WHO has announced an official name of the disease, which is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies have detected the virus RNA in patient stool samples infected with COVID-19 in China and the USA. These results were confirmed using RT-PCR, and there is no indication that the virus is infectious. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 transmission routes through sewage remain unknown. It is in this context of a global pandemic that Pathogens will launch a Special Issue on COVID-19 that aims to collect insightful reviews and research articles on the transport, survival, and fate of SARS-CoV-2 in natural and engineered water systems.

  1. WHO (2020) https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200329-sitrep-69-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=8d6620fa_2
  2. CDC (2020) https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html

Dr. Samendra Sherchan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • wastewater
  • epidemiology
  • pandemic
  • coronaviruses
  • disinfection
  • method detection
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Seasonal Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in Biological Fluids
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050540 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs by close contact with infected persons through droplets, the inhalation of infectious aerosols, and the exposure to contaminated surfaces. Previously, we determined the virus stability on different types of surfaces under indoor and seasonal climatic conditions. SARS-CoV-2 survived [...] Read more.
The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs by close contact with infected persons through droplets, the inhalation of infectious aerosols, and the exposure to contaminated surfaces. Previously, we determined the virus stability on different types of surfaces under indoor and seasonal climatic conditions. SARS-CoV-2 survived the longest on surfaces under winter conditions, followed by spring/fall and summer conditions, suggesting the seasonal pattern of stability on surfaces. However, under natural conditions, the virus is secreted in various biological fluids from infected humans. In this respect, it remains unclear how long the virus survives in various types of biological fluids. This study explores SARS-CoV-2 stability in virus-spiked human biological fluids under different environmental conditions by determining the virus half-life. The virus was stable for up to 21 days in nasal mucus, sputum, saliva, tear, urine, blood, and semen; it remained infectious significantly longer under winter and spring/fall conditions than under summer conditions. In contrast, the virus was only stable up to 24 h in feces and breast milk. These findings demonstrate the potential risk of infectious biological fluids in SARS-CoV-2 transmission and have implications for its seasonality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Observation of SARS-Like Particles in RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 Positive Sewage Samples
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050516 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
The ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly worldwide. The major transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 are recognised as inhalation of aerosol/droplets and person-to-person contact. However, some studies have demonstrated that live SARS-CoV-2 can be isolated from [...] Read more.
The ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly worldwide. The major transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 are recognised as inhalation of aerosol/droplets and person-to-person contact. However, some studies have demonstrated that live SARS-CoV-2 can be isolated from the faeces and urine of infected patients, which can then enter the wastewater system. The currently available evidence indicates that the viral RNA present in wastewater may become a potential source of epidemiological data. However, to investigate whether wastewater may present a risk to humans such as sewage workers, we investigated whether intact particles of SARS-CoV-2 were observable and whether it was possible to isolate the virus in wastewater. Using a correlative strategy of light microscopy and electron microscopy (CLEM), we demonstrated the presence of intact and degraded SARS-like particles in RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-positive sewage sample collected in the city of Marseille. However, the viral infectivity assessment of SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater was inconclusive, due to the presence of other viruses known to be highly resistant in the environment such as enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and adenoviruses. Although the survival and the infectious risk of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater cannot be excluded from our study, additional work may be required to investigate the stability, viability, fate, and decay mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 thoroughly in wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Evaluation of Two Methods to Concentrate SARS-CoV-2 from Untreated Wastewater
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020195 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Use of wastewater-based epidemiology as a tool to record and manage the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections in human populations requires information about the efficiency of methods to concentrate the virus from wastewater. In the present study, we spiked untreated wastewater with quantified SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
Use of wastewater-based epidemiology as a tool to record and manage the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections in human populations requires information about the efficiency of methods to concentrate the virus from wastewater. In the present study, we spiked untreated wastewater with quantified SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical material and enriched the virus by polyethylene glycol precipitation and ultrafiltration with Vivaspin 10 kDa MWCO columns. SARS-CoV-2 was detected and quantified by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (E- and S-gene) and droplet digital PCR. The concentration of virus with precipitation resulted in mean recoveries between 59.4% and 63.7% whereas rates from 33.0% to 42.6% after ultrafiltration of samples were demonstrated. The results suggest that the use of both methods allows an effective and practicable enrichment of SARS-CoV-2 from raw wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
COVID-19 Crisis Creates Opportunity towards Global Monitoring & Surveillance
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030256 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The spectrum of emerging new diseases as well as re-emerging old diseases is broadening as infectious agents evolve, adapt, and spread at enormous speeds in response to changing ecosystems. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recent phenomenon and may take [...] Read more.
The spectrum of emerging new diseases as well as re-emerging old diseases is broadening as infectious agents evolve, adapt, and spread at enormous speeds in response to changing ecosystems. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recent phenomenon and may take a while to understand its transmission routes from less traveled territories, ranging from fomite exposure routes to wastewater transmission. The critical challenge is how to negotiate with such catastrophic pandemics in high-income countries (HICs ~20% of the global population) and low-and middle-income countries (LMICs ~ 80% of the global population) with a total global population size of approximately eight billion, where practical mass testing and tracing is only a remote possibility, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Keeping in mind the population distribution disparities of high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs and urbanisation trends over recent years, traditional wastewater-based surveillance such as that used to combat polio may help in addressing this challenge. The COVID-19 era differs from any previous pandemics or global health challenges in the sense that there is a great deal of curiosity within the global community to find out everything about this virus, ranging from diagnostics, potential vaccines/therapeutics, and possible routes of transmission. In this regard, the fact that the gut is the common niche for both poliovirus and SARS-CoV-2, and due to the shedding of the virus through faecal material into sewerage systems, the need for long-term wastewater surveillance and developing early warning systems for better preparedness at local and global levels is increasingly apparent. This paper aims to provide an insight into the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, how it can be managed, and what measures are required to deal with a current global international public health concern. Additionally, it shed light on the importance of using wastewater surveillance strategy as an early warning practical tool suitable for massive passive screening, as well as the urgent need for microfluidic technology as a rapid and cost-effective approach tracking SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment)
Back to TopTop