Special Issue "Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mariana Henriques
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4715-338 Braga, Portugal
Interests: Non-Candida albicans Candida species; virulence factors; biofilms; antifungal resistance; natural antimicrobial agents; host interaction; biomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. David Williams
Website
Guest Editor
Oral and Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XY, UK
Interests: Candida albicans; biofilms; virulence factors; immune response; interaction with bacteria

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Candida species form part of the normal microbiota of an individual’s oral cavity, gastrointestinal, urinary and vaginal tracts. While normally harmless, conditions may arise that facilitate Candida infection (candidosis), which may manifest superficially at mucosal surfaces, or systemically. The incidence of human candidosis has increased in recent decades and whilst superficial infections are more prevalent, systemic infections have a much morbidity and mortality. Important risk factors for development of systemic infection include the more widespread use of invasive medical devices, an increase use of parenteral nutrition, higher occurrence of immunosuppression diseases, and greater use of chemo- and radiotherapies. To cause infection, Candida possess several virulence factors, and these include filamentous or hyphal growth, secretion of hydrolases, and an ability to adhere and produce biofilm on host surfaces.

In clinical infection, Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered species of Candida, with an incidence of approximately 47% in all candidoses. However, in recent decades, the number of infections caused by non-Candida albicans Candida species has increased significantly, and in this regard Candida glabrata has been prominent. Although C. glabrata lacks some of the virulence factors associated with C. albicans pathogenicity, such as hyphal growth and secreted hydrolases, it can be extremely resistant to antifungals. Moreover, C. glabrata has often found to be co-isolated with C. albicans where increased pathogenicity has been noted. Due to the high significance of Candida infections, especially those caused by C. albicans and C. glabrata, we would like to receive your contributions on this field, to promote increased understanding and awareness within this extremely important subject.

Prof. Dr. Mariana Henriques
Prof. Dr. David Williams
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Candida albicans
  • Candida glabrata
  • Candida infection
  • virulence factors

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Immunohistochemical Expression Patterns of Inflammatory Cells Involved in Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040232 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
The profile of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) was determined in oral mucosal biopsies by immunohistochemistry. One tonsillar tissue section was included as an immunohistochemistry control, whilst squamous papilloma (n = 4) with secondary Candida infection was used [...] Read more.
The profile of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) was determined in oral mucosal biopsies by immunohistochemistry. One tonsillar tissue section was included as an immunohistochemistry control, whilst squamous papilloma (n = 4) with secondary Candida infection was used as Candida controls. Oral lichen planus tissues (n = 10) provided negative controls for Candida presence, as well as positive controls for inflammation. Immunohistochemistry employed antibodies specific for CD3+ (T lymphocytes), CD4+ (T helper cells), CD8+ (cytotoxic T cells), and CD20+ (B lymphocytes). Manual counting of stained cells from digitised images determined the proportion of each cell type relative to the total number of cells, and these were assessed in the mucosa, the epithelium, and the lamina propria. The mean proportion of CD3+ cells was significantly higher than CD20+ cells in all tissue types. For CHC, the mean proportion of CD3+ cells in entire tissues was 15.6%, with the highest proportion in the lamina propria (32.6%) compared with the epithelium (3.9%). CD20+ cells were in much lower proportions (1.8%) in CHC, with the highest proportion (3.6%) in the lamina propria. T lymphocytes were predominately CD4+ cells (9.0%) compared with CD8+ cells (4.4%). CD4+ cells were most prevalent in the lamina propria (23.1%) compared with the epithelium (mean = 3.2%). From these results, it was concluded that the immune response invoked by Candida in CHC is primarily driven by the T helper cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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Open AccessArticle
Antifungal Activity and Synergism with Azoles of Polish Propolis
Pathogens 2018, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7020056 - 19 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey bee propolis, may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents. The activity of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish [...] Read more.
The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey bee propolis, may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents. The activity of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish apiaries, was tested on a group of 69 clinical isolates of C. albicans. Most of the EEPs showed satisfactory activity, with minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) mainly in the range of 0.08–1.25% (v/v). Eradication of biofilm from polystyrene microtitration plates in 50% (MBEC50, Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration) required concentrations in the range of 0.04% (v/v) to more than 1.25% (v/v). High activity was also observed in eradication of biofilm formed by C. glabrata and C. krusei on the surfaces of PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and silicone catheters. EEPs at subinhibitory concentrations inhibited yeast-to-mycelia morphological transformation of C. albicans in liquid medium and mycelial growth on solid medium. A synergistic effect was observed for the action of EEP in combination with fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. albicans. In the presence of EEP at concentrations as low as 0.02%, the MICs of FLU and VOR were 256 to 32 times lower in comparison to those of the drug alone. Evidence for the fungal cell membrane as the most probable target of EEPs are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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Open AccessArticle
Antifungal Activity of Commercial Essential Oils and Biocides against Candida Albicans
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010015 - 25 Jan 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Management of oral candidosis, most frequently caused by Candida albicans, is limited due to the relatively low number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of antifungal tolerance. In this study, the antifungal activity of a range of commercial essential oils, two terpenes, [...] Read more.
Management of oral candidosis, most frequently caused by Candida albicans, is limited due to the relatively low number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of antifungal tolerance. In this study, the antifungal activity of a range of commercial essential oils, two terpenes, chlorhexidine and triclosan was evaluated against C. albicans in planktonic and biofilm form. In addition, cytotoxicity of the most promising compounds was assessed using murine fibroblasts and expressed as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Antifungal activity was determined using a broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was established against planktonic cells cultured in a range of concentrations of the test agents. The minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined by measuring re-growth of cells after pre-formed biofilm was treated for 24 h with the test agents. All tested commercial essential oils demonstrated anticandidal activity (MICs from 0.06% (v/v) to 0.4% (v/v)) against planktonic cultures, with a noticeable increase in resistance exhibited by biofilms (MBECs > 1.5% (v/v)). The IC50s of the commercial essential oils were lower than the MICs, while a one hour application of chlorhexidine was not cytotoxic at concentrations lower than the MIC. In conclusion, the tested commercial essential oils exhibit potential as therapeutic agents against C. albicans, although host cell cytotoxicity is a consideration when developing these new treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Liposomal and Deoxycholate Amphotericin B Formulations: Effectiveness against Biofilm Infections of Candida spp.
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040062 - 01 Dec 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Background: candidiasis is the primary fungal infection encountered in patients undergoing prolonged hospitalization, and the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. One of the most important Candida spp. virulence factors is the ability to form biofilms, which are extremely refractory to antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Background: candidiasis is the primary fungal infection encountered in patients undergoing prolonged hospitalization, and the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. One of the most important Candida spp. virulence factors is the ability to form biofilms, which are extremely refractory to antimicrobial therapy and very difficult to treat with the traditional antifungal therapies. It is known that the prophylaxis or treatment of a systemic candidiasis are recurrently taken without considering the possibility of a Candida spp. biofilm-related infections. Therefore, it is important to assess the effectiveness of the available drugs and which formulations have the best performance in these specific infections. Methods: 24-h-biofilms of four Candida spp. and their response to two amphotericin B (AmB) pharmaceutical formulations (liposomal and deoxycholate) were evaluated. Results: generally, Candida glabrata was the less susceptible yeast species to both AmBs. MBECs revealed that it is therapeutically more appealing to use AmB-L than AmB-Deox for all Candida spp. biofilms, since none of the determined concentrations of AmB-L reached 10% of the maximum daily dose, but both formulations showed a very good capacity in the biomass reduction. Conclusions: the liposomal formulation presents better performance in the eradication of the biofilm cells for all the species in comparison with the deoxycholate formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Modulation of the Fungal-Host Interaction by the Intra-Species Diversity of C. albicans
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010011 - 17 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well [...] Read more.
The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well recognized and host protective mechanisms widely investigated. Only recently, it was recognized that the natural diversity in the fungal species could also influence the outcome of the interaction between the fungus and the host. C. albicans strain-specific differences are complex and their regulation at the genomic, genetic, and epigenetic level and by environmental factors is only partially understood. In this review, we provide an overview of the natural diversity of C. albicans and discuss how it impacts host-fungal interactions and thereby affects the balance between commensalism versus disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
Open AccessReview
What Could Be the Role of Antifungal Lock-Solutions? From Bench to Bedside
Pathogens 2018, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7010006 - 06 Jan 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Candidemia related to the presence of a biofilm are often reported in patients with vascular catheters. Once they are mature, biofilms are persistent infectious reservoirs, and the yeasts dispersed from biofilms can cause infections. Sessile yeasts typically display increased levels of resistance to [...] Read more.
Candidemia related to the presence of a biofilm are often reported in patients with vascular catheters. Once they are mature, biofilms are persistent infectious reservoirs, and the yeasts dispersed from biofilms can cause infections. Sessile yeasts typically display increased levels of resistance to most antimicrobial agents and systemic treatments usually fail to eradicate previously formed fungal biofilms. In a curative strategy, antifungal lock therapy may help to sterilize catheters, with very high concentrations of antifungal agents, which are not compatible with systemic use. This strategy has been studied by several authors in in vitro and in vivo studies, and more rarely, in clinical settings for adult and paediatric patients. Our study aims to assess the efficacy of the antifungal solutions used for lock therapy and demonstrated by the different teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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