Special Issue "Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Clare Collins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
Tel. +61 2 4921 5646; Fax: +61 2 4921 7053
Interests: nutrition; dietary intake; caloric restriction; dietary patterns; diet quality
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Deborah A Kerr
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Professor, Research Academic and Course Coordinator, Master of Dietetics, Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Public Health, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Tel. +61 8 9266 4122; Fax: +61 8 9266 2958
Interests: nutrition; dietary assessment; dietary interventions; technology-assisted dietary assessment; novel technology, text messaging; body composition
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Helen Truby
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Professor of Nutrition and Dietetics; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Monash University, Level 1, 264 Ferntree Gully Road, Notting Hill VIC 3168, Australia
Tel. +61 3 9902 4261
Interests: nutrition; dietary assessment; adolescent obesity; weight loss predictors; body mass index; paediatrics; energy expenditure; weight management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Measuring dietary intake can be time and resource intensive, and carry a high burden for both individuals and researchers. Technology may offer novel solutions to address these issues. The development and evaluation of novel technologies to assess dietary intake will aid researchers and policy makers to better elucidate how diet influences health, well-being, and development of chronic disease. To better quantify these relationships, methods addressing a range of scenarios, including surveillance, epidemiology, clinical use, and interventions are needed. These improved methods spanning the translational continuum will provide an evidence base for dietary recommendations for clinical and population use.

Developing technology-based methods now presents an opportunity to measure diet while potentially conserving time and costs, while considering issues such as user experience and reach. However sources of bias, measurement error and strategies for addressing these will require careful consideration. In addition, the end-user feedback is critical for informing the development of these approaches.

This Special Issue will include original research and scientific perspectives on the use of technology based approaches to assessing food and nutrient intake and dietary patterns, including image based methods, online tools and apps, use of hybrid or mixed methods and the user experience.

Prof. Dr. Clare Collins
Assoc. Prof. Deb Kerr
Prof. Dr. Helen Truby
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • novel technology
  • image based assessment
  • automated assessment
  • smart phone
  • mobile food record
  • text messaging
  • telehealth
  • ehealth
  • mhealth
  • nutrition
  • dietary intake
  • dietary assessment
  • methodology
  • validation
  • measurement error
  • biomarker
  • validation
  • calibration
  • dietary patterns
  • dietary interventions

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
NutriNet: A Deep Learning Food and Drink Image Recognition System for Dietary Assessment
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070657 - 27 Jun 2017
Cited by 28
Abstract
Automatic food image recognition systems are alleviating the process of food-intake estimation and dietary assessment. However, due to the nature of food images, their recognition is a particularly challenging task, which is why traditional approaches in the field have achieved a low classification [...] Read more.
Automatic food image recognition systems are alleviating the process of food-intake estimation and dietary assessment. However, due to the nature of food images, their recognition is a particularly challenging task, which is why traditional approaches in the field have achieved a low classification accuracy. Deep neural networks have outperformed such solutions, and we present a novel approach to the problem of food and drink image detection and recognition that uses a newly-defined deep convolutional neural network architecture, called NutriNet. This architecture was tuned on a recognition dataset containing 225,953 512 × 512 pixel images of 520 different food and drink items from a broad spectrum of food groups, on which we achieved a classification accuracy of 86.72%, along with an accuracy of 94.47% on a detection dataset containing 130,517 images. We also performed a real-world test on a dataset of self-acquired images, combined with images from Parkinson’s disease patients, all taken using a smartphone camera, achieving a top-five accuracy of 55%, which is an encouraging result for real-world images. Additionally, we tested NutriNet on the University of Milano-Bicocca 2016 (UNIMIB2016) food image dataset, on which we improved upon the provided baseline recognition result. An online training component was implemented to continually fine-tune the food and drink recognition model on new images. The model is being used in practice as part of a mobile app for the dietary assessment of Parkinson’s disease patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Method for Monitoring Food Quality and the Healthfulness of Consumers’ Grocery Purchases
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050457 - 05 May 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study presents a method laying the groundwork for systematically monitoring food quality and the healthfulness of consumers’ point-of-sale grocery purchases. The method automates the process of identifying United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns Equivalent Database (FPED) components of grocery food [...] Read more.
This study presents a method laying the groundwork for systematically monitoring food quality and the healthfulness of consumers’ point-of-sale grocery purchases. The method automates the process of identifying United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns Equivalent Database (FPED) components of grocery food items. The input to the process is the compact abbreviated descriptions of food items that are similar to those appearing on the point-of-sale sales receipts of most food retailers. The FPED components of grocery food items are identified using Natural Language Processing techniques combined with a collection of food concept maps and relationships that are manually built using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the What We Eat In America food categories, and the hierarchical organization of food items used by many grocery stores. We have established the construct validity of the method using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, but further evaluation of validity and reliability will require a large-scale reference standard with known grocery food quality measures. Here we evaluate the method’s utility in identifying the FPED components of grocery food items available in a large sample of retail grocery sales data (~190 million transaction records). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall Tool (Foodbook24) to an Interviewer-Led 24-h Dietary Recall
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050425 - 25 Apr 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Web-based tools have the potential to reduce the cost of dietary assessment; however, it is necessary to establish their performance compared to traditional dietary assessment methods. This study aims to compare nutrient and food intakes derived from Foodbook24 to those obtained from an [...] Read more.
Web-based tools have the potential to reduce the cost of dietary assessment; however, it is necessary to establish their performance compared to traditional dietary assessment methods. This study aims to compare nutrient and food intakes derived from Foodbook24 to those obtained from an interview-led 24-h dietary recall (24HDR). Seventy-nine adult participants completed one self-administered 24HDR using Foodbook24 and one interviewer-led 24HDR on the same day. Following a 10 days wash-out period the same process was completed again in opposite order to the previous study visit. Statistical analysis including Spearman’s rank order correlation, Mann-Whitney U tests, cross-classification analysis, and “Match”, “Omission”, and “Intrusion” rates were used to investigate the relationship between both methods. Strong, positive correlations of nutrient intake estimated using both methods was observed (rs = 0.6–1.0; p < 0.001). The percentage of participants classified into the same tertile of nutrient intake distribution using both methods ranged from 58% (energy) to 82% (vitamin D). The overall match rate for food intake between both methods was 85%, while rates for omissions and intrusions were 11.5% and 3.5%, respectively. These results, alongside the reduced cost and participant burden associated with Foodbook24, highlight the tool’s potential as a viable alternative to the interviewer-led 24HDR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030312 - 22 Mar 2017
Cited by 17
Abstract
The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) [...] Read more.
The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
BMI is Associated with the Willingness to Record Diet  with  a  Mobile  Food  Record  among  Adults  Participating in Dietary Interventions
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030244 - 07 Mar 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Image‐based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and [...] Read more.
Image‐based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and beverages using a mobile food record (mFR) application. A combined sample of 212 young adults and 73 overweight and obese adults completed a 4‐day mobile food record on two occasions and a follow‐up usability questionnaire. About 74% of participants stated they would record using the mFR for a longer period compared with a written record (29.4 ± 69.3 vs. 16.1 ± 42.6 days respectively; p < 0.0005). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify those who were more likely to record mFR in the top tertile (≥14 days). After adjusting for age and gender, those with a BMI ≥ 25 were 1.68 times more likely (Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02–2.77) than those with BMI < 25 to state a willingness to record with the mFR for ≥ 14 days. The greater willingness of overweight and obese individuals to record dietary intake using an mFR needs further examination to determine if this translates to more accurate estimates of energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
A Potential Tool for Clinicians; Evaluating a Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method in Overweight and Obese Women during Weight Loss
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030218 - 01 Mar 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment [...] Read more.
Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight/obese women. Known dietary intake was compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) reported intake in women (n = 45), 19–50 years, with body mass index of 27–39.9 kg/m2. Participants received nutrition education and reduced body weight by 4%–10%. Participants completed one unannounced dietary recall and their responses were compared to actual intake. Accuracy of the recall and characteristics of respondent error were measured using linear and logistic regression. Energy was underreported by 5% with no difference for most nutrients except carbohydrates, vitamin B12, vitamin C, selenium, calcium and vitamin D (p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, p = 0.022, p = 0.010, p = 0.008 and p = 0.001 respectively). Overall, ASA24 is a valid dietary assessment tool in overweight/obese women participating in a weight loss program. The automated features eliminate the need for clinicians to be trained, to administer, or to analyze dietary intake. Computer-led dietary assessment tools should be considered as part of clinician-supervised weight loss programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030200 - 27 Feb 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement [...] Read more.
The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020133 - 13 Feb 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and [...] Read more.
Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39–81 years) recruited from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020118 - 09 Feb 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 [...] Read more.
Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Image-Based Dietary Assessment Ability of Dietetics Students and Interns
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020114 - 07 Feb 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Image-based dietary assessment (IBDA) may improve the accuracy of dietary assessments, but no formalized training currently exists for skills relating to IBDA. This study investigated nutrition and dietetics students’ and interns’ IBDA abilities, the training and experience factors that may contribute to food [...] Read more.
Image-based dietary assessment (IBDA) may improve the accuracy of dietary assessments, but no formalized training currently exists for skills relating to IBDA. This study investigated nutrition and dietetics students’ and interns’ IBDA abilities, the training and experience factors that may contribute to food identification and quantification accuracy, and the perceived challenges to performing IBDA. An online survey containing images of known foods and serving sizes representing common American foods was used to assess the ability to identify foods and serving sizes. Nutrition and dietetics students and interns from the United States and Australia (n = 114) accurately identified foods 79.5% of the time. Quantification accuracy was lower, with only 38% of estimates within ±10% of the actual weight. Foods of amorphous shape or higher energy density had the highest percent error. Students expressed general difficulty with perceiving serving sizes, making IBDA food quantification more difficult. Experience cooking at home from a recipe, frequent measuring of portions, and having a food preparation or cooking laboratory class were associated with enhanced accuracy in IBDA. Future training of dietetics students should incorporate more food-based serving size training to improve quantification accuracy while performing IBDA, while advances in IBDA technology are also needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Computerised Dietary Analysis with a Ready Reckoner in a Real World Setting: Is Technology an Improvement?
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020099 - 31 Jan 2017
Abstract
Ready reckoners are used in the clinical setting as a tool for the estimation of nutrient intake. With increasing opportunities for nutrition research, ready reckoners may provide for a more rapid analysis of nutritional intake than computerised methods, often seen as the gold [...] Read more.
Ready reckoners are used in the clinical setting as a tool for the estimation of nutrient intake. With increasing opportunities for nutrition research, ready reckoners may provide for a more rapid analysis of nutritional intake than computerised methods, often seen as the gold standard for nutritional analysis. This research aimed to determine the level of agreement between ready reckoner and computerised dietary analysis through a secondary analysis of clinical trial data. Participant food intakes were estimated by trained observers using the one-quarter method. Daily energy and protein intake were estimated by the healthcare network ready reckoner and computerised dietary analysis. Agreement between methods was tested using t-tests, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. A correlation between analysis methods was observed (r = 0.9086 energy, r = 0.8700 protein). Wide limits of agreement were observed for both energy and protein intake. Compared with the computerised method, ready reckoner analysis underestimated energy intake by 600 kJ and protein intake by 5 g. Mean energy and protein intake calculated by each method was significantly different (p < 0.0001 energy; p < 0.0001 protein). No time differences between analysis methods were observed. In the clinical setting, practitioners should be aware of the variability of a ready reckoner compared to computerised dietary analysis. Further investigation into the acceptability of ready reckoners as a reliable method of nutrient intake determination, particularly for analysis of nutrition research, is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020100 - 31 Jan 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to [...] Read more.
With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020093 - 26 Jan 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
How Often and How Much? Differences in Dietary Intake by Frequency and Energy Contribution Vary among U.S. Adults in NHANES 2007–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010086 - 23 Jan 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the top frequently reported foods or beverages and the top foods or beverages grouped by broad and specific What We Eat In America (WWEIA) categories for adult age groups of 19 to 35 years, 36 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the top frequently reported foods or beverages and the top foods or beverages grouped by broad and specific What We Eat In America (WWEIA) categories for adult age groups of 19 to 35 years, 36 to 55 years, and ≥65 years (n = 16,399) using data drawn from the cross-sectional, WWEIA, National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012 and to compare intake of broad WWEIA categories ranked by frequency and by energy contribution among these adult age groups. Ranking, unadjusted and weighted frequencies, and the proportion of reported foods or energy out of all reported foods or energy were determined and stratified by age. The Rao–Scott modified chi-square was used to test for significant differences among age groups. Results support dietary quality differences by age; intake of broad WWEIA categories was significantly different among age groups by frequency for alcohol, water, and condiment/sauces. Energy contributions significantly differed among age groups for protein foods, snacks/sweets, and beverages. Frequently reported foods and beverages may be used to inform the creation of search tools used for automatic and user-verified identification of foods and beverages in mobile- or technology-based dietary assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
Development and Evaluation of e-CA, an Electronic Mobile-Based Food Record
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010076 - 18 Jan 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Measures that capture diet as validly and reliably as possible are cornerstones of nutritional research, and mobile-based devices offer new opportunities to improve and simplify data collection. The balance between precision and acceptability of these data collection tools remains debated, and rigorous validations [...] Read more.
Measures that capture diet as validly and reliably as possible are cornerstones of nutritional research, and mobile-based devices offer new opportunities to improve and simplify data collection. The balance between precision and acceptability of these data collection tools remains debated, and rigorous validations are warranted. Our objective was to develop and evaluate an electronic mobile-based food record for a research setting. We developed e-CA, which includes almost 900 foods and beverages classified in 14 categories and 60 subcategories. e-CA was evaluated using three different methods: (1) usability and acceptability through a logbook and qualitative interviews; (2) dietary intake accuracy through comparison with 2 unannounced 24-h phone recalls on overlapping days; and (3) reliability and process comparison with a paper-based food record in a laboratory setting with a randomized design. e-CA proved to be intuitive and practical and was perceived as modern, trendy, and fun. Comparisons of e-CA with 24-h telephone recalls or paper-based food records in a laboratory setting with two small convenient samples showed good agreement but highlighted the well-known difficulty of estimating portion sizes and a necessary learning time to use the app. e-CA is a functional tool that has the potential to facilitate food intake measurement for research by increasing the pleasure of using the food record tool and reducing the perceived burden for the participants. It also decreases the workload, costs and the risk of transcription errors for researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010073 - 18 Jan 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary [...] Read more.
Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application) of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete), median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05), and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05) and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05) supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010066 - 13 Jan 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were [...] Read more.
The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001) from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively). Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001), as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010062 - 13 Jan 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); [...] Read more.
Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
The CSIRO Healthy Diet Score: An Online Survey to Estimate Compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010047 - 09 Jan 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
There are few dietary assessment tools that are scientifically developed and freely available online. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey asks questions about the quantity, quality, and variety of foods consumed. On completion, individuals receive a personalised [...] Read more.
There are few dietary assessment tools that are scientifically developed and freely available online. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey asks questions about the quantity, quality, and variety of foods consumed. On completion, individuals receive a personalised Diet Score—reflecting their overall compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Over 145,000 Australians have completed the survey since it was launched in May 2015. The average Diet Score was 58.8 out of a possible 100 (SD = 12.9). Women scored higher than men; older adults higher than younger adults; and normal weight adults higher than obese adults. It was most common to receive feedback about discretionary foods (73.8% of the sample), followed by dairy foods (55.5%) and healthy fats (47.0%). Results suggest that Australians’ diets are not consistent with the recommendations in the guidelines. The combination of using technology and providing the tool free of charge has attracted a lot of traffic to the website, providing valuable insights into what Australians’ report to be eating. The use of technology has also enhanced the user experience, with individuals receiving immediate and personalised feedback. This survey tool will be useful to monitor population diet quality and understand the degree to Australians’ diets comply with dietary guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Health Literacy Status on the Comparative Validity and Sensitivity of an Interactive Multimedia Beverage Intake Questionnaire
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010005 - 23 Dec 2016
Abstract
Self-reported dietary assessment methods can be challenging to validate, and reporting errors for those with lower health literacy (HL) may be augmented. Interactive multimedia (IMM) based questionnaires could help overcome these limitations. The objectives of this investigation are to assess the comparative validity [...] Read more.
Self-reported dietary assessment methods can be challenging to validate, and reporting errors for those with lower health literacy (HL) may be augmented. Interactive multimedia (IMM) based questionnaires could help overcome these limitations. The objectives of this investigation are to assess the comparative validity and sensitivity to change of an IMM beverage intake questionnaire (IMM-BEVQ) as compared to dietary recalls and determine the impact of HL. Adults completed three 24-h dietary recalls and the IMM-BEVQ at baseline and after a six-month intervention targeting either sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) or physical activity. Correlations and paired-samples t-tests are presented. For validity (n = 273), intake of SSB (mean difference = 10.6 fl oz) and total beverage consumption (mean difference = 16.0 fl oz) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.001) at baseline between the IMM-BEVQ and dietary recalls for all participants. However, the differences in intake were generally greater in low HL participants than in adequate HL participants. For sensitivity (n = 162), change in SSB intake (mean difference = 7.2 fl oz) was significantly different (p ≤ 0.01) between pre-/post-IMM-BEVQ and pre-/post-dietary recalls, but not total beverage intake (mean difference = 7.6 fl oz) for all participants. Changes in SSB and total beverage intake were not significantly different for those with adequate HL. The IMM-BEVQ is a valid dietary assessment tool that is as responsive to detecting changes in beverage intake as dietary recalls. However, adults with lower HL may need additional guidance when completing the IMM-BEVQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110724 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 23
Abstract
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W) for a French-Canadian [...] Read more.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W) for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090557 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE’s [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE’s results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database–steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs’ estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, −8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of −79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080480 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition [...] Read more.
The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to “Back of Pack” data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080467 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to [...] Read more.
Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovations in Calculating Precise Nutrient Intake of Hospitalized Patients
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070412 - 04 Jul 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Obtaining a detailed assessment of a hospitalized patient’s nutrient intake is often critically important to ensuring the patient’s successful recovery. However, this process is often laborious and prone to error. Inaccurate nutrient intake assessments result in the inability of the healthcare team to [...] Read more.
Obtaining a detailed assessment of a hospitalized patient’s nutrient intake is often critically important to ensuring the patient’s successful recovery. However, this process is often laborious and prone to error. Inaccurate nutrient intake assessments result in the inability of the healthcare team to recognize patients with developing nutritional deficits that contribute to delayed recovery and prolonged lengths of stay. This paper describes an innovative, easy to use system designed to increase the precision of calorie count reports by using a combination of photography, direct observation, and a specially developed computer program. Although the system was designed specifically for use in a Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, it has the potential to be adapted for use in other hospital environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020140 - 14 Feb 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search [...] Read more.
Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120815 - 17 Dec 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessDiscussion
Overcoming Dietary Assessment Challenges in Low-Income Countries: Technological Solutions Proposed by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030289 - 16 Mar 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
An increasing number of low-income countries (LICs) exhibit high rates of malnutrition coincident with rising rates of overweight and obesity. Individual-level dietary data are needed to inform effective responses, yet dietary data from large-scale surveys conducted in LICs remain extremely limited. This discussion [...] Read more.
An increasing number of low-income countries (LICs) exhibit high rates of malnutrition coincident with rising rates of overweight and obesity. Individual-level dietary data are needed to inform effective responses, yet dietary data from large-scale surveys conducted in LICs remain extremely limited. This discussion paper first seeks to highlight the barriers to collection and use of individual-level dietary data in LICs. Second, it introduces readers to new technological developments and research initiatives to remedy this situation, led by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project. Constraints to conducting large-scale dietary assessments include significant costs, time burden, technical complexity, and limited investment in dietary research infrastructure, including the necessary tools and databases required to collect individual-level dietary data in large surveys. To address existing bottlenecks, the INDDEX Project is developing a dietary assessment platform for LICs, called INDDEX24, consisting of a mobile application integrated with a web database application, which is expected to facilitate seamless data collection and processing. These tools will be subject to rigorous testing including feasibility, validation, and cost studies. To scale up dietary data collection and use in LICs, the INDDEX Project will also invest in food composition databases, an individual-level dietary data dissemination platform, and capacity development activities. Although the INDDEX Project activities are expected to improve the ability of researchers and policymakers in low-income countries to collect, process, and use dietary data, the global nutrition community is urged to commit further significant investments in order to adequately address the range and scope of challenges described in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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