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Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 467;

A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health, Uni Research Health, P.O. Box 7810, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Department of Health promotion and development, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: FFQ; dietary assessment; adolescents; dietary index; reliability FFQ; dietary assessment; adolescents; dietary index; reliability

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Handeland, K.; Kjellevold, M.; Wik Markhus, M.; Eide Graff, I.; Frøyland, L.; Lie, Ø.; Skotheim, S.; Stormark, K.M.; Dahl, L.; Øyen, J. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score. Nutrients 2016, 8, 467.

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