Next Article in Journal
Usual Intake of Key Minerals among Children in the Second Year of Life, NHANES 2003–2012
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool
Previous Article in Journal
Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle: The Chase for the Culprit Goes from Total Intramuscular Fat to Lipid Intermediates, and Finally to Species of Lipid Intermediates
Previous Article in Special Issue
Innovations in Calculating Precise Nutrient Intake of Hospitalized Patients
Open AccessArticle

A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

1
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health, Uni Research Health, P.O. Box 7810, 5020 Bergen, Norway
4
Department of Health promotion and development, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080467
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: FFQ; dietary assessment; adolescents; dietary index; reliability FFQ; dietary assessment; adolescents; dietary index; reliability
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Handeland, K.; Kjellevold, M.; Wik Markhus, M.; Eide Graff, I.; Frøyland, L.; Lie, Ø.; Skotheim, S.; Stormark, K.M.; Dahl, L.; Øyen, J. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score. Nutrients 2016, 8, 467.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop