Special Issue "Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Ichimura
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Viral Infection and International Health, Graduate School of Advanced Preventive Medical Sciences/Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
Interests: viral and host factors associated with disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and neuropathogenic expression mechanism of enterovirus A-71; impact of HIV infection on the other infectious diseases; effect of probiotics on gut microbiota and immune status of HIV-infected children

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The nutritional status of the host has been associated with both severity and susceptibility to infectious diseases. It is suggested that inadequate nutrition impairs the functioning of the immune system and also affects the viral pathogen, resulting in increased susceptibility to the infection. The main objective of this Special Issue is to assess the relationship between viral infection and the nutritional status of the host, particularly to see if the nutritional status of the host can affect immune function and have profound effects on the virus itself. On this topic, you are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Special Issue.

In this proposed Special Issue on "Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection", papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) dealing with various aspects of nutrition that could play a role in systemic/gut immunity and the pathogenesis of viral infectious diseases will be included.

Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Ichimura
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Immunity
  • Gut microbiota
  • Viral infection
  • Probiotics
  • Micronutrients
  • Vitamins
  • Fatty acids

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Carrot Pomace Polysaccharide (CPP) Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Immunosuppressed Mice via Dendritic Cell Activation
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092740 - 09 Sep 2020
Abstract
Despite the advancements in vaccination research and practices, influenza viruses remain a global health concern. Inducing a robust immune response by vaccination is especially challenging in the elderly, the immunocompromised, and persons with chronic illnesses. Polysaccharides derived from food may act as a [...] Read more.
Despite the advancements in vaccination research and practices, influenza viruses remain a global health concern. Inducing a robust immune response by vaccination is especially challenging in the elderly, the immunocompromised, and persons with chronic illnesses. Polysaccharides derived from food may act as a safe and readily accessible means to boost the immune system during vaccination. In this study, we investigated whether crude polysaccharides derived from carrot pomace (CPP) could stimulate innate immune cell function and promote influenza vaccine immunogenicity. In bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), CPP increased the fraction of CD11c+MHCII+ cells and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80, indicative of enhanced maturation and activation. Functionally, CPP-treated BMDCs promoted inflammatory cytokine production in splenic lymphocytes. In a mouse model of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide, animals given CPP before and after an influenza vaccine challenge showed increased frequencies of dendritic cells and natural killer cells in the spleen, in addition to the recovery of vaccine-specific antibody titers. Moreover, innate myeloid cells in CPP-fed mice showed evidence of phenotypic modification via markedly enhanced interleukin(IL)-12 and interferon(IFN)-γ production in response to lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulation ex vivo. Our findings suggest that the administration of carrot pomace polysaccharides can significantly enhance the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Supplementation of the Vitamin D Metabolite 25(OH)D3 Against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072000 - 05 Jul 2020
Abstract
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is metabolized by the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and then by the kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which activates the vitamin D receptor expressed in various cells, including immune cells, for an overall [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is metabolized by the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and then by the kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which activates the vitamin D receptor expressed in various cells, including immune cells, for an overall immunostimulatory effect. Here, to investigate whether oral supplementation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], a major form of vitamin D metabolite 25(OH)D, has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection, mice were fed a diet containing a high dose of 25(OH)D3 and were challenged with the influenza virus. In the lungs of 25(OH)D3-fed mice, the viral titers were significantly lower than in the lungs of standardly fed mice. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IFN-γ were significantly downregulated after viral infection in 25(OH)D3-fed mice, while anti-inflammatory cytokines were not significantly upregulated. These results indicate that 25(OH)D3 suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines and reduces virus replication and clinical manifestations of influenza virus infection in a mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Antiviral, Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Natural Medicinal Herbs and Mushrooms and SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092573 - 25 Aug 2020
Abstract
The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks [...] Read more.
The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection)
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