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Open AccessArticle

Oral Supplementation of the Vitamin D Metabolite 25(OH)D3 Against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice

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Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan
2
Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Osaka Shoin Woman’s University, Hishiyanishi 4-2-26, Higashiosaka 577-8550, Japan
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Unit of Risk Analysis and Management, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita 20 Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
4
Global Station of Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072000
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 5 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection)
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is metabolized by the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and then by the kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which activates the vitamin D receptor expressed in various cells, including immune cells, for an overall immunostimulatory effect. Here, to investigate whether oral supplementation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], a major form of vitamin D metabolite 25(OH)D, has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection, mice were fed a diet containing a high dose of 25(OH)D3 and were challenged with the influenza virus. In the lungs of 25(OH)D3-fed mice, the viral titers were significantly lower than in the lungs of standardly fed mice. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IFN-γ were significantly downregulated after viral infection in 25(OH)D3-fed mice, while anti-inflammatory cytokines were not significantly upregulated. These results indicate that 25(OH)D3 suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines and reduces virus replication and clinical manifestations of influenza virus infection in a mouse model. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; cytokines; influenza vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; cytokines; influenza
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Hayashi, H.; Okamatsu, M.; Ogasawara, H.; Tsugawa, N.; Isoda, N.; Matsuno, K.; Sakoda, Y. Oral Supplementation of the Vitamin D Metabolite 25(OH)D3 Against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2000.

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