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Article

Development of an Affordable, Sustainable and Efficacious Plant-Based Immunomodulatory Food Ingredient Based on Bell Pepper or Carrot RG-I Pectic Polysaccharides

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Suze Consulting, Voorweg 65, 3233 SJ Oostvoorne, The Netherlands
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IMcoMET BV, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Glykos Finland Oy, Viikinkaari 6, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
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Unilever, Foods Innovation Centre, Bronland 14, 6708 WH Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Rijk Zwaan, Burgemeester Crezéelaan 40, P.O. Box 40, 2678 KX De Lier, The Netherlands
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ProDigest BV, Technologiepark 82, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
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Analyze & Realize GmbH, Waldseeweg 6, 13467 Berlin, Germany
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Nutrileads BV, Bronland 12-N, 6708 WH Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Wageningen University, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hiroshi Ichimura
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030963
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Immunity and Viral Infection)
The prevalence of acute respiratory infections and their impact on quality of life underlies the need for efficacious solutions that are safe, sustainable and economically viable. Polysaccharides in several (traditional) plant extracts have been shown to be immunostimulatory, and some studies suggest beneficial effects against respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to (i) identify the active polysaccharide constituents from affordable and renewable crops (bell pepper and carrot) using activity-guided fractionation, (ii) evaluate in vitro effects on innate immune responses (phagocytosis and cytokine secretion), microbiota modulation and production of short chain fatty acids, followed by (iii) the evaluation of effects of a bell pepper extract enriched for the active component in a human proof of concept study. We identified rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) as the nutricophore responsible for the immunostimulatory activity with substantial structural and functional equivalence between bell pepper (bp) and carrot (c). The in vitro studies showed that bpRG-I and cRG-I comprise similar immune- and microbiota modulatory potential and the human study demonstrated that bpRG-I was well tolerated and enhanced innate immune responsiveness in vivo. This is an important step towards testing the efficacy of RG-I from bpRG-I or cRG-I in an infection trial in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), bell pepper; bpRG-I; carrot; cRG-I; innate immune response; microbiota modulation; short chain fatty acids (SCFA), immunity; viral infections rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), bell pepper; bpRG-I; carrot; cRG-I; innate immune response; microbiota modulation; short chain fatty acids (SCFA), immunity; viral infections
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MDPI and ACS Style

McKay, S.; Oranje, P.; Helin, J.; Koek, J.H.; Kreijveld, E.; van den Abbeele, P.; Pohl, U.; Bothe, G.; Tzoumaki, M.; Aparicio-Vergara, M.; Mercenier, A.; Schols, H.; Albers, R. Development of an Affordable, Sustainable and Efficacious Plant-Based Immunomodulatory Food Ingredient Based on Bell Pepper or Carrot RG-I Pectic Polysaccharides. Nutrients 2021, 13, 963. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030963

AMA Style

McKay S, Oranje P, Helin J, Koek JH, Kreijveld E, van den Abbeele P, Pohl U, Bothe G, Tzoumaki M, Aparicio-Vergara M, Mercenier A, Schols H, Albers R. Development of an Affordable, Sustainable and Efficacious Plant-Based Immunomodulatory Food Ingredient Based on Bell Pepper or Carrot RG-I Pectic Polysaccharides. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):963. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030963

Chicago/Turabian Style

McKay, Sue, Paul Oranje, Jari Helin, Jean H. Koek, Ellen Kreijveld, Pieter van den Abbeele, Ute Pohl, Gordana Bothe, Maria Tzoumaki, Marcela Aparicio-Vergara, Annick Mercenier, Henk Schols, and Ruud Albers. 2021. "Development of an Affordable, Sustainable and Efficacious Plant-Based Immunomodulatory Food Ingredient Based on Bell Pepper or Carrot RG-I Pectic Polysaccharides" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 963. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030963

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