Special Issue "Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Older Adults"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 8385

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Justin Keogh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD 4226, Australia
Interests: biomechanics; motor control and learning; resistance training; sarcopenia; strength and conditioning; team sports
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Michelle Miller
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, 5042, South Australia
Interests: healthy ageing; clinical nutrition in rehabilitation, aged care and vascular surgery; validity/reliability of nutrition screening and assessment instruments
Dr. Brad Schoenfeld
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Exercise Science Department, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468, United States
Interests: nutrient timing; resistance training variables; muscle hypertrophy; muscle strength

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Living to a ripe old age is the goal of many people, as it allows a vast variety of life experiences to be had, including having many years to know your children, grandchildren and perhaps great-grandchildren. What, then, may be some strategies that increase our chance to reach such an age and to maintain good health, wellbeing and independence in old age? While the healthcare systems in many Western countries focus on a pharmacological approach to this question, increasing evidence points to the importance of exercise (physical activity) and diet to achieve these outcomes. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge regarding exercise and diet in improving the lives of older adults. For example, what constitutes the optimal exercise prescription and dietary intake is still not completely understood, especially for older adults with sarcopenia, frailty and other chronic diseases. Further, we have still not been overly effective in increasing the prevalence of physical activity and suitable dietary intakes for older adults throughout the world. We therefore welcome submissions of original research or systematic reviews examining the efficacy of different physical activity and nutritional strategies for older adults or studies examining ways in which we can increase the prevalence of adequate physical activity and dietary intakes for older adults.

Assoc. Prof. Justin Keogh
Prof. Michelle Miller
Dr. Brad Schoenfeld
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Older adult
  • Exercise
  • Physical activity
  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Rehabilitation
  • Protein intake

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
i-Rebound after Stroke-Eat for Health: Mediterranean Dietary Intervention Co-Design Using an Integrated Knowledge Translation Approach and the TIDieR Checklist
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041058 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Lifestyle interventions to reduce second stroke risk are complex. For effective translation into practice, interventions must be specific to end-user needs and described in detail for replication. This study used an Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) approach and the Template for Intervention Description and [...] Read more.
Lifestyle interventions to reduce second stroke risk are complex. For effective translation into practice, interventions must be specific to end-user needs and described in detail for replication. This study used an Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) approach and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist to co-design and describe a telehealth-delivered diet program for stroke survivors. Stroke survivors and carers (n = 6), specialist dietitians (n = 6) and an IKT research team (n = 8) participated in a 4-phase co-design process. Phase 1: the IKT team developed the research questions, and identified essential program elements and workshop strategies for effective co-design. Phase 2: Participant co-design workshops used persona and journey mapping to create user profiles to identify barriers and essential program elements. Phase 3: The IKT team mapped Phase 2 data to the TIDieR checklist and developed the intervention prototype. Phase 4: Co-design workshops were conducted to refine the prototype for trial. Rigorous IKT co-design fundamentally influenced intervention development. Modifications to the protocol based on participant input included ensuring that all resources were accessible to people with aphasia, an additional support framework and resources specific to outcome of stroke. The feasibility and safety of this intervention is currently being pilot tested (randomised controlled trial; 2019/ETH11533, ACTRN12620000189921). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Older Adults)
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Article
Digitally Supported Dietary Protein Counseling Changes Dietary Protein Intake, Sources, and Distribution in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020502 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Digitally supported dietary counselling may be helpful in increasing the protein intake in combined exercise and nutritional interventions in community-dwelling older adults. To study the effect of this approach, 212 older adults (72.2 ± 6.3 years) were randomised in three groups: control, exercise, [...] Read more.
Digitally supported dietary counselling may be helpful in increasing the protein intake in combined exercise and nutritional interventions in community-dwelling older adults. To study the effect of this approach, 212 older adults (72.2 ± 6.3 years) were randomised in three groups: control, exercise, or exercise plus dietary counselling. The dietary counselling during the 6-month intervention was a blended approach of face-to-face contacts and videoconferencing, and it was discontinued for a 6-month follow-up. Dietary protein intake, sources, product groups, resulting amino acid intake, and intake per eating occasion were assessed by a 3-day dietary record. The dietary counselling group was able to increase the protein intake by 32% at 6 months, and the intake remained 16% increased at 12 months. Protein intake mainly consisted of animal protein sources: dairy products, followed by fish and meat. This resulted in significantly more intake of essential amino acids, including leucine. The protein intake was distributed evenly over the day, resulting in more meals that reached the protein and leucine targets. Digitally supported dietary counselling was effective in increasing protein intake both per meal and per day in a lifestyle intervention in community-dwelling older adults. This was predominantly achieved by consuming more animal protein sources, particularly dairy products, and especially during breakfast and lunch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Older Adults)
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Article
Safety and Efficacy of Probiotic Supplementation in Reducing the Incidence of Infections and Modulating Inflammation in the Elderly with Feeding Tubes: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study, “IntegPRO”
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020391 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in a sample of geriatric patients treated with home enteral nutrition (HEN) to analyze the efficacy of a probiotic supplement Proxian®, which contains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021), Lentilactobacillus buchneri Lb26 (DSM 16341), Bifidobacterium animalis [...] Read more.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in a sample of geriatric patients treated with home enteral nutrition (HEN) to analyze the efficacy of a probiotic supplement Proxian®, which contains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021), Lentilactobacillus buchneri Lb26 (DSM 16341), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BS01 (LMG P-21384), and is enriched with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), in reducing the incidence of infections and modulating inflammation. Thirty-two subjects were enrolled (mean age 79.7 ± 10.3 years), 16 in the intervention group, 16 controls. They received Proxian® or placebo for 60 days. Patients were assessed at baseline (t0) and 60 (t1) and 90 (t2) days after the beginning. Infections were detected by information regarding their clinical manifestations and the incidence of antibiotic therapy. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured to study inflammation. Information on bowel function, nutritional status and testimonials regarding the feasibility of administration of the product were collected. Differences between the two groups in number of infections (25% intervention group vs. 44% controls), antibiotic therapies (12% vs. 37%) and modulation of CRP levels (median CRP moved from 0.95 mg/L (t0), to 0.6 (t1) and 0.7 (t2) in intervention group vs. 0.7 mg/L, 0.5 and 0.7 in controls) did not reach statistical significance. No significant changes in bowel function and nutritional status were found. Caregivers’ adherence was 100%. Results of this “IntegPRO” study showed that Proxian® is potentially safe, easy to administer and promising for further studies but it appears not to change the incidence of infections or modulate inflammation in elderly treated with HEN. The utility of Proxian® in reducing the incidence of infections and modulating inflammation in these subjects needs to be investigated by a larger multi-center clinical trial, and by using additional analyses on inflammatory markers and markers of infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Older Adults)
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Article
Effects of Cistanche tubulosa Wight Extract on Locomotive Syndrome: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010264 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
In an aging society, preventing dysfunction and restoring function of the locomotive organs are necessary for long-term quality of life. Few interventional studies have investigated supplementation for locomotive syndrome. Additionally, very few interventional clinical studies on locomotive syndrome have been performed as placebo-controlled, [...] Read more.
In an aging society, preventing dysfunction and restoring function of the locomotive organs are necessary for long-term quality of life. Few interventional studies have investigated supplementation for locomotive syndrome. Additionally, very few interventional clinical studies on locomotive syndrome have been performed as placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind studies. We previously found that the administration of 30% ethanolic extract of Cistanche tubulosa improved walking ability in a cast-immobilized skeletal muscle atrophy mouse model. Therefore, we conducted a clinical study to evaluate the effects of C. tubulosa (CT) extract on the locomotive syndrome. Twenty-six subjects with pre-symptomatic or mild locomotive syndrome completed all tests and were analyzed in the study. Analyses of muscle mass and physical activity were performed based on the full analysis set. Intake of CT extract for 12 weeks increased step width (two-step test) and gait speed (5 m walking test) in patients over 60 years old compared with those in a placebo control (p = 0.046). In contrast, the skeletal muscle mass of the body trunk and limbs was unchanged following administration of CT extract. Adverse effects were evaluated by blood tests; no obvious adverse events were observed following the intake of CT extract. In conclusion, this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study demonstrated that treatment with CT extract significantly prevented a decline in walking ability without any notable adverse effects in patients with locomotive syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Older Adults)
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Article
Effects of Physical Rehabilitation and Nutritional Intake Management on Improvement in Tongue Strength in Sarcopenic Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103104 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the impact of physical intervention and the amount of nutritional intake on the increase in tongue strength and swallowing function in older adults with sarcopenia. From November 2018 and May 2019, older patients with sarcopenia who were admitted [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the impact of physical intervention and the amount of nutritional intake on the increase in tongue strength and swallowing function in older adults with sarcopenia. From November 2018 and May 2019, older patients with sarcopenia who were admitted for rehabilitation were analyzed. The intervention employed in the study was the usual physical and occupational therapy for two months. Tongue strength was measured before and after two months of treatment. Data on tongue strength, the amount of energy and protein intake, intervention time, and swallowing function were examined. A total of 95 sarcopenic older patients were included (mean age 83.4 ± 6.5 years). The mean tongue strength after the intervention was significantly increased from 25.4 ± 8.9 kPa to 30.5 ± 7.6 kPa as a result of the treatment (p < 0.001). After adjusting the confounding factors in the multivariable models, an energy intake of ≥30 kcal/kg/day and a protein intake of ≥1.2 g/kg/day based on the ideal body weight had a significant impact on the increase in tongue strength after the treatment (p = 0.011 and p = 0.020, respectively). Swallowing function assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability was significantly increased after the treatment (mean difference between pairs: 1.12 [0.53–1.70]; p < 0.001). Physical intervention and strict nutritional management for older inpatients with sarcopenia could be effective to improve tongue strength and swallowing function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Older Adults)
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