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Special Issue "Cereal Grains for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Marjukka Kolehmainen

University of Eastern Finland, Institute Public Health & Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio 70211, Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health effects of foods, nutrition, food induced gut function, interaction between physiological and psychological responses
Guest Editor
Dr. Kati Hanhineva

Academy Research Fellow, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food and nutritional metabolomics; LC-MS based metabolic profiling approaches; development of data-analytical procedures for metabolomics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kaisa Poutanen

Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue, “Cereal Grains for Human Health”, is to provide an extensive summary on the current knowledge regarding the role of whole grain consumption in decreasing the risk of major non-communicable diseases, including cardiometabolic disorders and certain cancers, based on epidemiological investigations and dietary intervention trials. The associations of known biomarkers of whole grain consumption with risk factors of chronic diseases will be addressed. In particular, the potential cellular mechanisms encompassed in the health protective effect will be discussed, and the knowledge of the potential bioactive constituents including dietary fiber, as well as phytochemicals, from different whole grain species will be reviewed. Finally, the role of inter-individual differences in metabolic responsiveness to dietary whole grains will be addressed.

Prof. Dr. Marjukka Kolehmainen
Dr. Kati Hanhineva
Prof. Dr. Kaisa Poutanen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • whole grain
  • wheat
  • rye
  • oats
  • biomarkers of whole grain intake
  • health effects
  • risk of chronic diseases
  • metabolomics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Enzymatically-Processed Wheat Bran Enhances Macrophage Activity and Has in Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040188
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wheat bran is a rich source of dietary fiber, of which arabinoxylan is the most abundant non-starch polysaccharide. Arabinoxylan has been known to exert in vivo immunological activities. Based on prior findings, we pretreated wheat bran with enzymatic hydrolysis to increase the release
[...] Read more.
Wheat bran is a rich source of dietary fiber, of which arabinoxylan is the most abundant non-starch polysaccharide. Arabinoxylan has been known to exert in vivo immunological activities. Based on prior findings, we pretreated wheat bran with enzymatic hydrolysis to increase the release of soluble arabinoxylan and investigated whether oral administration of wheat bran altered macrophage activity in a mouse model. After four weeks of treatment, we isolated peritoneal macrophages for phagocytic receptor analysis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory changes. In the second experiment, mice given wheat bran were intraperitoneally stimulated with LPS and serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined. The expression of SRA and CD36, and phagocytic activity increased (p < 0.05, respectively). Ex vivo stimulation of macrophages by LPS resulted in reduced surface expression of CD40 (p < 0.05) and decreased production of nitric oxide (p < 0.005), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.005), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.01), and IL-12 (p < 0.05). Mice treated with wheat bran showed decreased levels of serum TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05, respectively) and an increased level of serum anti-inflammatory IL-10 (p < 0.05) in response to intraperitoneal LPS. Enzymatically-processed wheat bran boosts macrophage phagocytic capacity possibly through up-regulation of scavenger receptors and confers anti-inflammatory effects, indicating its potential as an immuno-enhancing functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020096
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one
[...] Read more.
Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010042
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic
[...] Read more.
Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010040
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the
[...] Read more.
There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10237-10250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125531
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5%
[...] Read more.
We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Effect of Oat β-Glucan Intake on Glycaemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity of Diabetic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010039
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many individual studies on oat β-glucan (OBG) confirmed its functionality in improving type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but disagreements were identified among those results. To derive a pooled estimate of these results, relevant articles, published before 5 September 2015, were collected from four
[...] Read more.
Many individual studies on oat β-glucan (OBG) confirmed its functionality in improving type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but disagreements were identified among those results. To derive a pooled estimate of these results, relevant articles, published before 5 September 2015, were collected from four electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science) and subjected to meta-analysis in the present work. In total, four articles, dealing with 350 T2DM patients combined, met the inclusion criteria. Compared to control, T2DM patients administrated OBG from 2.5 to 3.5 g/day for 3 to 8 weeks presented significantly lowered concentrations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) by −0.52 (95% CI: −0.94, −0.10) mmol/L (p = 0.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by −0.21% (95% CI: −0.40, −0.02) (p = 0.03). However, OBG intake did not significantly lower the fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration. In conclusion, mediate-term OBG intake (3–8 weeks) favored the glycaemic control of T2DM patients but did not improve their insulin sensitivity. Regrettably, data upon the effects of long-term OBG intake on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity were scarce, which is of much importance and should be addressed in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
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