Special Issue "Food, Nutrition and Health"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 8085

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marjukka Kolehmainen
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Interests: health effects of foods; nutrition; food induced gut function; interaction between physiological and psychological responses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Anna Kårlund
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
Interests: the quality of dietary proteins; food matrix–human physiology interactions; in vitro digestion models; metabolomics in food and nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Substances and molecular derivatives travelling along the digestive tract within the food matrix may have long-term effects on human health. These effects can be related to, for instance, the bioavailability of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds, intestinal cell function and metabolism, and the composition and dynamics of human gut and oral microbiota. The interactions between the diet and metabolic events (both human and microbial) can be monitored via marker molecules present in human secretions, biofluids, and tissues. However, sampling of blood, muscle or adipose tissue, or intestinal content, for example, can be highly invasive and demanding, especially for subjects from special groups, such as children and the elderly. Thus, non-invasive sampling and imaging procedures have been developed to reduce the unnecessary inconvenience to study participants and researchers, and to improve overall research ethics. In addition, sophisticated in vitro and in silico models may also be valuable tools in order to minimize the discomfort caused to laboratory animals and human subjects in the field of food and nutrition science.

Thus, the focus of this Special Issue is on: 1) the food-borne exposure of the dynamic human digestive system to pollutants and natural or synthetic anti-nutritional factors; and 2) non-invasive sampling methods and imaging tools applied in research on clinical nutrition and human microbiota. We welcome original research articles, short communications, and reviews/mini-reviews related, but not limited, to:

  • changes in food digestion kinetics and/or microbiota dynamics and metabolism after food-borne exposures;
  • stabile isotope tracers in clinical nutrition;
  • optical imaging tools in food and nutrition science;
  • dietary and health biomarkers in urine, saliva, and sweat;
  • in vitro digestion models in dietary exposure research; and
  • in silico models for nutritional research.

Dr. Anna Kårlund
Prof. Marjukka Kolehmainen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • clinical nutrition
  • microbiota dynamics
  • food-borne exposures
  • digestion kinetics
  • non-invasive techniques
  • optical imaging
  • modeling.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Nutritional Intervention Improves Nutrition Outcomes in Stomach and Colon Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: Finding from a Quasi-Experiment in Vietnam
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070843 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Background: Evidence on the effects of nutritional interventions on gastrointestinal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is not well documented. This study aims to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in patients diagnosed with stomach and colon cancer receiving chemotherapy in Vietnam. Methods: A quasi-experiment [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence on the effects of nutritional interventions on gastrointestinal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is not well documented. This study aims to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in patients diagnosed with stomach and colon cancer receiving chemotherapy in Vietnam. Methods: A quasi-experiment with intervention and control groups for pre- and post-intervention was carried out in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in a university hospital in Vietnam. Patients in the intervention group were provided nutritional counseling, personalized specific dietary advice, and received oral nutrition supplements (ONSs) while patients in the control group only received nutrition counseling. Results: The weight in the intervention and control group after 2 months increased significantly by 1.4 ± 2.6 kg and 0.4 ± 2.3 kg, respectively. Muscle mass increased by 1.2 ± 4.1 cm in the intervention group, while those in the control group decreased by 0.55 ± 2.77 cm. There was no statistical significance between two groups after intervention in terms of Mid–Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) and percentage of fat. The percentage of malnutrition based on the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and Body Mass Index (BMI) declined after the intervention in both groups. According to the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) using the propensity score matching and DiD method, participants receiving the intervention were more likely to have a higher score of weight (Coef = 0.84; 95%CI = 0.47; 2.16) and muscle mass (Coef = 1.08; 95%CI = 0.09; 2.06) between pre- and post-intervention. By contrast, the PG-SGA scores on treated participants were more likely to decrease after the intervention (Coef = −1.28; 95%CI = −4.39; −0.84). After matching, being female, living in rural areas, or having stomach cancer were still positively related to being moderately/severely malnourished by the PG-SGA, and these findings were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The nutritional interventions had a positive effect on weight gain, muscle mass, and reduced malnutrition. Further studies with a longer follow-up duration are needed to confirm the effects of the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
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Article
Nutrition Habits of Polish Nurses: An Approach
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070786 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Background: Chronic stress, unlimited working time and the shift working system as well as sleep deficiency may lead to the occurrence of nutrition disorders among nurses. Aim: The aim of the paper was an assessment of the nutrition habits of nurses. It was [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic stress, unlimited working time and the shift working system as well as sleep deficiency may lead to the occurrence of nutrition disorders among nurses. Aim: The aim of the paper was an assessment of the nutrition habits of nurses. It was an observational study conducted from June 2017 to May 2018 among nurses (n = 1080) in Silesia in Poland. Data was obtained using a range of questionnaires. Results: Body mass index (BMI) of the analysed nurses demonstrated overweight/obesity in 490 (45.5%) of them. Nearly all the diets of the analysed nurses (n = 1021; 94.5%) required improvement. Younger nurses (<31 years old) demonstrated a greater tendency to indulge in habitual overeating, and those having additional employment demonstrated poorer nutrition habits compared to those without additional employment. Conclusion: The analysed nurses made numerous dietary mistakes which, as a consequence, can lead to obesity. Emotional overeating was the dominant nutrition habit in the studied group of nurses. Nurses who were overweight/obese, nurses who had additional employment and younger nurses demonstrated tendencies toward improper nutrition choices, i.e., the tendency to overeat or restrain oneself from eating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
Article
Factors Associated with Feeding Problems in Young Children with Gastrointestinal Diseases
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060741 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Feeding problems are associated with the consumption of a limited amount or restricted variety of foods and often occur in children with gastrointestinal diseases. The majority of studies to date do not use valid and reliable measurements to detect feeding problems. The aim [...] Read more.
Feeding problems are associated with the consumption of a limited amount or restricted variety of foods and often occur in children with gastrointestinal diseases. The majority of studies to date do not use valid and reliable measurements to detect feeding problems. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess behavioral and skill-based feeding problems in young children with gastrointestinal diseases by using a well-established parent-reported feeding measure and identify demographic, anthropometric, and environmental factors associated with maladaptive feeding behaviors in this pediatric population. Parents completed the Greek version of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and self-reported questionnaires assessing mealtime environment and parental feeding practices. It was found that 18.6% of the sample had abnormal Total Frequency Score (TFS) (frequency of problematic feeding behaviors) and 39.5% had abnormal Total Problem Score (TPS) (number of behaviors perceived as problematic by parents). Younger children, with lower body mass index, lower birth weight, and only children were more likely to have feeding problems. The study showed that parent-reported feeding problems are increased in young children with gastrointestinal diseases and are associated with specific aspects of mealtime environment and parental feeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
Article
Perception and Knowledge of Patients from Different Regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia towards Oral Hygiene and Oral Hygiene Aids
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050592 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the perception and awareness of interdental aids in different regions of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted, in order to evaluate the perception and knowledge of patients towards oral hygiene products among the [...] Read more.
Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the perception and awareness of interdental aids in different regions of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted, in order to evaluate the perception and knowledge of patients towards oral hygiene products among the population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In total, 812 out of 1124 participants responded and completed the survey (response rate 72.2%). The data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire in English and Arabic. All statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 20 software. p < 0.05 was used to indicate statistical significance. Results: A total of 812 participants responded, of which 486 participants (60%) declared using a toothpaste and toothbrush for cleaning their teeth. The cohort consisted of 274 (34%) females who brushed twice daily, while 96 (33%) males brushed their teeth once a day and 18% of the participants did not even brush once a day. The results indicated that 332 (64%) female participants and 174 (60%) male participants had perception and knowledge of the use of dental floss or any other device to clean between their teeth, while 174 (48.50%) male participants and 174 (49.10%) female participants cleaned their tongue with the same brush, rather than using a tongue scrubber or any other aids. Conclusion: The total awareness of interdental aids in Saudi Arabia is unsatisfactory, as demonstrated by the participants not being conscious or informed about the maintenance of their oral health. A majority of participants did not report adopting basic techniques, such as tongue brushing. This study reveals that no interdental aids were used by 16% of the participants. Thus, it is crucial to develop an effective educational program which emphasizes oral healthcare in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
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Article
Catering Work Profession and Medico-Oral Health: A Study on 603 Subjects
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050582 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
The present observational prospective study analyzes the eating habits in association with the medico-oral health of catering workers, since they seem the category at higher risk of developing dental problems. Objective: To evaluate oral and medical health through a questionnaire in a total [...] Read more.
The present observational prospective study analyzes the eating habits in association with the medico-oral health of catering workers, since they seem the category at higher risk of developing dental problems. Objective: To evaluate oral and medical health through a questionnaire in a total sample of 603 participants. Additionally, this article aims to provide information regarding the medico-oral implications of an unbalanced diet linked to this particular profession. Material and methods: A questionnaire created through Google Forms platform was sent to all members of the Italian Federation of Chefs (FIC). The mean age was 46.9 ± 32.6 ranging from 17 to 66 years old. Results: Catering workers’ years of service showed a significant impact on the presence of teeth pain (p < 0.05), missing teeth (excluding the third molars) (p < 0.01), treatment with prothesis (p < 0.01), dental fillings (p < 0.01), dental extractions (p < 0.01), diabetes (p < 0.05), high blood pressure (p < 0.01), joint pain (p < 0.01), back pain (p < 0.01), neck pain (p < 0.01), and gastroesophageal reflux (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A conspicuous part of the study sample was overweight, with a high BMI. Moreover, the years of service in this field showed significant impact on dental problems. Therefore, a very important role is that of preventing dental problems and giving information on the causes and effects unknown to many workers in the sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
Article
Nutritional Education Is an Effective Tool in Improving Beverage Assortment in Nurseries in Poland
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030274 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of education on improving the assortment of beverages served in nurseries in Poland. This analysis focused on beverages served to children with meals and between meals. We examined: water, tea, juices, soft/fruit drinks, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of education on improving the assortment of beverages served in nurseries in Poland. This analysis focused on beverages served to children with meals and between meals. We examined: water, tea, juices, soft/fruit drinks, compote, milk, cocoa, and coffee substitute. The study involved 93 nurseries enrolled in the Eating Healthy, Growing Healthy project and was conducted from 2015 to 2017. Nutritional education was carried out by dieticians or nutritionists and included 24 h of lectures given to the staff of nurseries. Training was conducted in a form of workshops that were divided into 12 topics. Additionally, consultations regarding infants and young children nutrition were available to the staff. Typically, education training was completed within 1–2 months in each nursery. The effectiveness of education was verified based on data on beverage supply in 186 ten-day menus, 1860 daily inventory reports before (at baseline), and 3–6 months after staff training (post baseline). Data were analyzed in a total group, and separately for public and non-public nurseries. Statistical analyses for categorical variables were done with Chi2 Pearson test. The differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. After education, a significant increase in the supply of water as a beverage served with meals was observed in all nurseries (68% vs. 87%; p = 0.002), both in public (72% vs. 90%, p = 0.036) and non-public (62% vs. 84%, p = 0.017) ones. Moreover, a decrease in served tea was noted: in all nurseries (71% vs. 44%, p < 0.001) and in public nurseries (77% vs. 42%, p < 0.001). Water was available between meals in almost all nurseries. Nutritional education for staff is an important tool for improving adherence to the nutritional recommendation in the case of core beverage supply in Polish nurseries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
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Review

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Review
Intestinal Exposure to Food-Derived Protease Inhibitors: Digestion Physiology- and Gut Health-Related Effects
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081002 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Plant-derived protease inhibitors (PI), such as Bowman-Birk inhibitors and Kunitz-type inhibitors, have been suggested to negatively affect dietary protein digestion by blocking the activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin in the human gastrointestinal system. In addition, some PIs may possess proinflammatory activities. However, there [...] Read more.
Plant-derived protease inhibitors (PI), such as Bowman-Birk inhibitors and Kunitz-type inhibitors, have been suggested to negatively affect dietary protein digestion by blocking the activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin in the human gastrointestinal system. In addition, some PIs may possess proinflammatory activities. However, there is also scientific evidence on some beneficial effects of PIs, for example, gut-related anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities in vitro and in vivo. Some PIs are sensitive to processing and digestion; thus, their survival is an important aspect when considering their positive and negative bioactivities. The aim of this review was to evaluate the relevance of PIs in protein digestion in humans and to discuss the potential of PIs from whole foods and as purified compounds in decreasing symptoms of bowel-related conditions. Based on the reviewed literature, we concluded that while the complex interactions affecting plant protein digestibility and bioavailability remain unclear, PI supplements could be considered for targeted purposes to mitigate inflammation and gastric pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
Review
Acne Vulgaris and Intake of Selected Dietary Nutrients—A Summary of Information
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060668 - 03 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Acne vulgaris (AV) is a chronic disease that affects a significant percentage of the world’s population. Its development is influenced by both external and internal factors. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the effect of basic nutrient intake on the exacerbation [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris (AV) is a chronic disease that affects a significant percentage of the world’s population. Its development is influenced by both external and internal factors. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the effect of basic nutrient intake on the exacerbation or alleviation of AV lesions. A retrospective review of publications in PubMed regarding diet therapy and the impact of individual nutrient intake on the skin condition of patients was conducted. Ingestion of products with a high glycaemic index may indirectly lead to sebum overproduction, which promotes infection with Cutibacterium acnes and causes inflammation. Consumption of certain dairy products may result in skin deterioration caused by the presence of hormones in these products, i.e., progesterone and testosterone precursors. The beneficial effect of fatty acids on the skin is manifested by the reduction in inflammation. Of significance in AV treatment are vitamins A, C, D, E and B, as well as mineral elements zinc and selenium. Proper nutrition may not only prevent or alleviate AV but also increase treatment efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition and Health)
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