Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread
Previous Article in Journal
Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration
Open AccessArticle

Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

1
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. Box 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010040
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; proximal colon; whole-grain; bread; cohort; prospective; women; Norway colorectal cancer; proximal colon; whole-grain; bread; cohort; prospective; women; Norway
MDPI and ACS Style

Bakken, T.; Braaten, T.; Olsen, A.; Kyrø, C.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study). Nutrients 2016, 8, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop