Next Article in Journal
Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population
Previous Article in Special Issue
Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women
Open AccessArticle

Enzymatically-Processed Wheat Bran Enhances Macrophage Activity and Has in Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice

Department of East-West Medical Science, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
Bio-Center, Gyeonggi Institute of Science and Technology Promotion, Suwon 16229, Korea
DongA One Corporation, Dangjin 31703, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 188;
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
Wheat bran is a rich source of dietary fiber, of which arabinoxylan is the most abundant non-starch polysaccharide. Arabinoxylan has been known to exert in vivo immunological activities. Based on prior findings, we pretreated wheat bran with enzymatic hydrolysis to increase the release of soluble arabinoxylan and investigated whether oral administration of wheat bran altered macrophage activity in a mouse model. After four weeks of treatment, we isolated peritoneal macrophages for phagocytic receptor analysis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory changes. In the second experiment, mice given wheat bran were intraperitoneally stimulated with LPS and serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined. The expression of SRA and CD36, and phagocytic activity increased (p < 0.05, respectively). Ex vivo stimulation of macrophages by LPS resulted in reduced surface expression of CD40 (p < 0.05) and decreased production of nitric oxide (p < 0.005), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.005), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.01), and IL-12 (p < 0.05). Mice treated with wheat bran showed decreased levels of serum TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05, respectively) and an increased level of serum anti-inflammatory IL-10 (p < 0.05) in response to intraperitoneal LPS. Enzymatically-processed wheat bran boosts macrophage phagocytic capacity possibly through up-regulation of scavenger receptors and confers anti-inflammatory effects, indicating its potential as an immuno-enhancing functional food. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat bran; arabinoxylan; functional food; macrophage; inflammation wheat bran; arabinoxylan; functional food; macrophage; inflammation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, H.; Lee, M.-G.; Lee, J.-K.; Choi, Y.-H.; Choi, Y.-S. Enzymatically-Processed Wheat Bran Enhances Macrophage Activity and Has in Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 188.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop