Special Issue "Influence of Carbohydrate and Phytochemical Ingestion on Exercise-Induced Immune Dysfunction, Inflammation, Muscle Damage, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Recovery"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. David C. Nieman
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA;
2. Director of the Human Performance Laboratory,North Carolina Research Campus,Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
Interests: sports nutrition; exercise; immunology; inflammation; obesity; metabolomics; proteomics; lipid mediators
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The influence of exercise on the immune system is a relatively new area of scientific endeavour, with about 90% of research data published since 1990. The immune response to exercise depends on the accumulated metabolic stress from the frequency, intensity, and duration of effort. Regular moderate exercise such as 30 to 60-minute brisk walking bouts improves the recirculation and function of several types of immune cells, especially those of the innate immune system including natural killer cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. In contrast, high exercise workloads and the associated physiological and metabolic stress cause transient immune impairment, inflammation, oxidative stress, and muscle damage. Preliminary evidence suggests that the most effective nutritional countermeasures to these metabolic and immune perturbations, especially when considered from a metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics perspective, include acute and chronic increases in dietary carbohydrate and phytochemicals. Many knowledge gaps still exist, however, and this Special Issue will include papers that provide novel insights into the complex relationships between carbohydrate and phytochemical nutrition support, exercise stress, and immune function.

Prof. David C. Nieman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • exercise
  • immune function
  • carbohydrate
  • phytochemicals

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Millimolar Steady-State Hydrogen Peroxide Exposure on Inflammatory and Redox Gene Expression in Immune Cells from Humans with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121920 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can exert opposed effects depending on the dosage: low levels can be involved in signalling and adaptive processes, while higher levels can exert deleterious effects in cells and tissues. Our [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can exert opposed effects depending on the dosage: low levels can be involved in signalling and adaptive processes, while higher levels can exert deleterious effects in cells and tissues. Our aim was to emulate a chronic ex vivo oxidative stress situation through a 2 h exposure of immune cells to sustained H2O2 produced by glucose oxidase (GOX), at high or low production rate, in order to determine dissimilar responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and neutrophils on ROS and cytokine production, and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins, pro/anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant gene expression. Immune cells were obtained from subjects with metabolic syndrome. H2O2 at low concentrations can trigger a transient anti-inflammatory adiponectin secretion and reduced gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in PBMCs but may act as a stimulator of proinflammatory genes (IL6, IL8) and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins (Mtf2, NRF2, Tfam). H2O2 at a high concentration enhances the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (TLR2 and IL1β) and diminishes the expression of mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins (Mtf1, Tfam) and antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn SOD) in PBMCs. The GOX treatments produce dissimilar changes in immune cells: Neutrophils were more resistant to H2O2 effects and exhibited a more constant response in terms of gene expression than PBMCs. We observe emerging roles of H2O2 in mitochondrial dynamics and redox and inflammation processes in immune cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous miRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Profiling of Differentiating Equine Satellite Cells Treated with Gamma-Oryzanol and Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121871 - 02 Dec 2018
Abstract
Gamma-oryzanol (GO) is a popular supplement for performance horses, dogs, and humans. Previous studies indicated that GO supplementation decreases creatine kinase activity and lactate level after exercise and may affect oxidative stress in Thoroughbred horses. GO may change genes expression in equine satellite [...] Read more.
Gamma-oryzanol (GO) is a popular supplement for performance horses, dogs, and humans. Previous studies indicated that GO supplementation decreases creatine kinase activity and lactate level after exercise and may affect oxidative stress in Thoroughbred horses. GO may change genes expression in equine satellite cells (ESC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of GO on miRNA, gene expression, oxidative stress, and cell damage and viability in differentiating ESC pretreated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ESCs were obtained from a young horse’s skeletal muscle. ESCs were pre-incubated with GO (24 h) and then exposed to H2O2 for one hour. For the microRNA and gene expression assessment, the microarray technique was used. Identified miRNAs and genes were validated using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Several tests related to cell viability, cell damage, and oxidative stress were performed. The microarray analysis revealed differences in 17 miRNAs and 202 genes between GO-treated and control ESC. The tests related to apoptosis, cell viability, and oxidative stress showed that GO affects these processes to varying degrees. Our results suggest that GO can change miRNA and gene expression and may impact the processes involved in tissue repairing after an injury. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbohydrate Intake Does Not Counter the Post-Exercise Decrease in Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111658 - 04 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In a study using a randomized crossover approach, cyclists (n = 20, overnight fasted) engaged in three 75 km time trials while ingesting water (WAT) or carbohydrate (0.2 g/kg every 15 min) from bananas (BAN) or a 6% sugar beverage (SUG). Blood [...] Read more.
In a study using a randomized crossover approach, cyclists (n = 20, overnight fasted) engaged in three 75 km time trials while ingesting water (WAT) or carbohydrate (0.2 g/kg every 15 min) from bananas (BAN) or a 6% sugar beverage (SUG). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h, 1.5 h, and 21 h post-exercise and analyzed for natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity activity (NKCA) using pure NK cell populations. The two carbohydrate trials (BAN, SUG) compared to WAT were associated with higher post-exercise glucose and lower cortisol, total blood leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts (interaction effects, p < 0.001). The immediate post-exercise increase in NK cell counts was higher in WAT (78%) compared to BAN (32%) and SUG (15%) trials (p ≤ 0.017). The 1.5 h post-exercise decrease in NK cell counts did not differ after WAT (−46%), BAN (−46%), and SUG (−51%) trials. The pattern of change in post-exercise NKCA differed between trials (p < 0.001). The 1.5 h post-exercise decreases in NKCA were 23%, 29%, and 33% in the WAT, BAN, and SUG trials, respectively, but trial contrasts did not differ significantly. Carbohydrate ingestion from BAN or SUG attenuated immediate post-exercise increases in leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts, but did not counter the 1.5 h decreases in NK cell counts and NKCA. Full article
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