Macrophages are polarized into different phenotypes depending on tissue microenvironment where they reside. In obesity-associated inflammation, M1-type macrophages are predominant in the inflamed tissue, exerting pro-inflammatory responses. Our previous studies demonstrate that blackcurrant consumption attenuates hepatic inflammation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses of splenocytes in obese mice. In this study, we determined whether blackcurrant modulates macrophage phenotypes to exert its anti-inflammatory action. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and human THP-1 macrophages were polarized into M1 macrophages in the presence or absence of blackcurrant extract (BCE). BCE repressed M1 polarization of both murine and human macrophages. Also, to gain insight into the role of blackcurrant metabolites produced in vivo in the regulation of macrophage phenotypes, BMDM were treated with serum obtained from lean or obese mice fed blackcurrant. While serum from lean mice fed blackcurrant did not exert either anti-inflammatory actions or suppressive effects on M1 polarization, serum from obese mice fed blackcurrant reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in BMDM. Our data demonstrate that BCE suppresses M1 polarization, with reduced pro-inflammatory responses. Moreover, this study suggests that blackcurrant metabolites may not exert their anti-inflammatory effect directly by altering macrophage phenotypes, but possibly by inhibiting the production of obesity-associated inflammatory factors.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited