Gene-Diet Interactions and Cardiometabolic Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2024 | Viewed by 3938

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2. CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Interests: precision nutrition; omics; Mediterranean diet; lifestyle; cardiovascular disease; obesity; nutrigenomics; epigenomics; metabolomics; transcriptomic; gene–diet interaction
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, there is an increased interest in precision nutrition for improving the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). CMDs and other related phenotypes are highly prevalent diseases globally and constitute major concerns worldwide. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which diet, genomics, and other factors contribute to their co-occurrence remain unclear. Further research is, therefore, expected to provide novel insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying their correlations. Possible perspectives may involve methodological aspects regarding the improvement of dietary assessments and better methodologies for analyzing gene–diet interactions, including internal and external validity, replications, limitations of genetic pleiotropy, and differences in age, sex, and disease status. In addition, complex interactions between genes and the environment, including other lifestyle variables, the microbiome, and the social exposome, may have a relevant, underexplored role. In the same way, both the clinical utility of gene–diet interactions that have already been reported and the clinical utility of the new interactions that have been found need a more thorough evaluation so that they can be applied to precision nutrition and help determine morbidity risk.

The completion of human genome sequencing and the introduction of high-throughput "omic" technologies have allowed for a better understanding of nutrient–gene interactions, which vary between genotypes, metabotypes, epigenotypes, metagenotypes, and their complex, combined scores, with the ultimate goal of developing personalized nutrition strategies for optimal health and disease prevention.

This Special Issue, “Gene–Diet Interactions and Cardiometabolic Health”, welcomes manuscripts detailing human and animal studies focused on the roles of diet, genetic, and other omics factors in complex diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, with the aim of elucidating the potential molecular mechanisms of lifestyle–gene interactions.

Prof. Dr. Dolores Corella
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs)
  • genetic
  • gene–diet
  • nutrient–gene
  • nutrition strategies
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • personalized Nutrition

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1719 KiB  
Article
High Dietary Intake of Iron Might Be Harmful to Atrial Fibrillation and Modified by Genetic Diversity: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Zierdi Habudele, Ge Chen, Samantha E. Qian, Michael G. Vaughn, Junguo Zhang and Hualiang Lin
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050593 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Some studies suggest an association between iron overload and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the relationship between dietary iron intake and atrial fibrillation (AF) remains uncertain, as does the role of genetic loci on this association. The study involved 179,565 participants from UK Biobank, [...] Read more.
Some studies suggest an association between iron overload and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the relationship between dietary iron intake and atrial fibrillation (AF) remains uncertain, as does the role of genetic loci on this association. The study involved 179,565 participants from UK Biobank, tracking incident atrial fibrillation (AF) cases. Iron intake was categorized into low, moderate, and high groups based on dietary surveys conducted from 2009 to 2012. The Cox regression model was used to estimate the risk of AF in relation to iron intake, assessing the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). It also examined the impact of 165 AF-related and 20 iron-related genetic variants on this association. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed using Metascape and FUMA. During a median follow-up period of 11.6 years, 6693 (3.97%) incident AF cases were recorded. A total of 35,874 (20.0%) participants had high iron intake. High iron intake was associated with increased risk of AF [HR: 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.22)] in a fully adjusted model. Importantly, there were 83 SNPs (11 iron-related SNPs) that could enhance the observed associations. These genes are mainly involved in cardiac development and cell signal transduction pathways. High dietary iron intake increases the risk of atrial fibrillation, especially when iron intake exceeds 16.95 mg. The association was particularly significant among the 83 SNPs associated with AF and iron, the individuals with these risk genes. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that these genes are significantly involved in cardiac development and cell signal transduction processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions and Cardiometabolic Health)
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13 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Effect of Black Garlic Consumption on Endothelial Function and Lipid Profile: A Before-and-After Study in Hypercholesterolemic and Non-Hypercholesterolemic Subjects
by Débora Villaño, Javier Marhuenda, Raúl Arcusa, José Manuel Moreno-Rojas, Begoña Cerdá, Gema Pereira-Caro and Pilar Zafrilla
Nutrients 2023, 15(14), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143138 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
Background: Black garlic is obtained from raw garlic (Allium sativum L.), by a fermentation process, under humidity and heat treatment, showing a high concentration of organosulfur compounds, which have been related to benefits in the prevention or delay of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). [...] Read more.
Background: Black garlic is obtained from raw garlic (Allium sativum L.), by a fermentation process, under humidity and heat treatment, showing a high concentration of organosulfur compounds, which have been related to benefits in the prevention or delay of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The objective of the research was to evaluate whether long-term consumption of black garlic improves endothelial function and lipid profile in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Single center, controlled clinical trial with two branches: Hypercholesterolemia vs. Healthy condition. Sixty-two subjects of both sexes were distributed in two groups, the hypercholesterolemia group (n = 31) (total cholesterol (TC) range 200–300 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol range 135–175 mg/dL) and the healthy group (n = 31). The intervention consisted of the ingestion of 4 cloves of black garlic (12 g) daily for 12 weeks. Results: significant increases in Apolipoprotein (Apo)A1 occurred in both groups: Hypercholesterolemia (Δ 11.8 mg/dL p < 0.001) vs Healthy (Δ 11.1 mg/dL p < 0.001). Besides, significant reductions for endothelial adhesion molecules monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (Δ −121.5 pg/mL p = 0.007 vs. Δ −56.3 pg/mL p = 0.015), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (Δ −39.3 ng/mL p < 0.001 vs. Δ 63.5 ng/mL p < 0.001), and vascular cyto-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (Δ −144.4 ng/mL p < 0.001 vs. Δ −83.4 ng/mL p = 0.061) were observed, for hypercholesterolemic and healthy subjects, respectively. Conclusions: These data show that black garlic consumption could improve some parameters related to endothelial function and lipid profile, which may have a favorable impact on the risk of CVDs, although more long-term studies are necessary to confirm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions and Cardiometabolic Health)
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