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Dietary and Behavioral Interventions for Diabetes

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Diabetes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 October 2024 | Viewed by 23651

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Unitat de Suport a la Recerca Metropolitana Nord, Fundació Institut Universitari per a la recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut Jordi Gol i Gurina (IDIAPJGol), 08303 Mataró, Spain
Interests: primary care medicine; clinical epidemiology; cohort studies; evidence-based medicine; clinical medicine; portfolio theory; diabetes; health; hypertension; preventive medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Unitat de Suport a la Recerca Metropolitana Nord, Institut Universitari d’Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol (IDIAP Jordi Gol), 08303 Mataró, Spain
Interests: primary care medicine; clinical epidemiology; cohort studies; evidence-based medicine; clinical medicine; diabetes; cognition; neurology

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Unitat de Suport a la Recerca Metropolitana Nord, Institut Universitari d’Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol (IDIAP Jordi Gol), 08303 Mataró, Spain
Interests: primary care; innovation; clinical simulations; collaborative working; diabetes; information and telecommunication technologies; interprofessional communication; health habits

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleges,

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and is caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Diabetes can be managed effectively via a combination of dietary and behavioral interventions. These interventions are essential for controlling blood glucose levels, preventing complications, and improving overall health.

Behavioral interventions for diabetes management include a healthy diet, regular physical activity, stress management, and medication adherence. The importance of these interventions cannot be overstated. Research has shown that people with diabetes who make healthy dietary and lifestyle choices can significantly improve their blood glucose levels and reduce their risk of developing complications such as cardiopathy, nephropathy or neuropathy. In addition, these interventions can improve individuals’ overall health and quality of life.

Dietary and behavioral interventions are critical for controlling diabetes mellitus, especially in the current context of economic constraints in the healthcare system. With rising healthcare costs, it is becoming increasingly vital to find effective and cost-efficient strategies for managing chronic diseases such as diabetes. Fortunately, these interventions have been shown to be both effective and cost-efficient for managing diabetes mellitus.

Indeed, there is an increasing tendency to view and treat diabetes as a medical condition that requires pharmaceutical interventions, rather than a condition that can be managed effectively through lifestyle changes (medicalization). While medications such as insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents are essential for managing diabetes, they come with their own set of risks and limitations. Overreliance on medications can also undermine the importance of dietary and behavioral interventions for diabetes management.

Considering all of these issues, Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "Dietary and Behavioural Interventions for Diabetes”, encourages researchers to submit articles that examine the effectiveness of specific dietary interventions or other behavioral interventions, the mechanisms by which these interventions improve blood glucose levels and prevent complications, and the implementation of these interventions in clinical practice, including strategies for improving patient adherence and addressing barriers to implementation.

Finally, research in this field can help to promote patient empowerment and the self-management of diabetes. By identifying effective dietary and behavioral interventions, patients can be empowered to take an active role in their own diabetes management, which could lead to improved health outcomes and a reduction in the overall burden of the disease on the healthcare system.

Dr. Pere Torán-Monserrat
Dr. Noemí Lamonja-Vicente
Dr. David Lacasta Tintorer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diabetes
  • behavioral interventions
  • physical activity interventions
  • dietary interventions
  • medication adherence

Published Papers (5 papers)

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10 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Personalized Nutrition Therapy without Weight Loss Counseling Produces Weight Loss in Individuals with Prediabetes Who Are Overweight/Obese: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Raedeh Basiri and Lawrence J. Cheskin
Nutrients 2024, 16(14), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16142218 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Obesity stands out as a primary risk factor for diabetes. Attaining healthy weight loss, especially reducing body fat, is important in managing prediabetes and preventing progression to full diabetes and its co-morbidities. This study examined the effects of personalized nutrition therapy (PNT) combined [...] Read more.
Obesity stands out as a primary risk factor for diabetes. Attaining healthy weight loss, especially reducing body fat, is important in managing prediabetes and preventing progression to full diabetes and its co-morbidities. This study examined the effects of personalized nutrition therapy (PNT) combined with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on body weight and composition in individuals with prediabetes. A total of 30 individuals with prediabetes who were overweight or obese were assigned randomly to either the treatment, observed CGM data plus PNT, or the control group which was blinded to their blood glucose results throughout the study. Both groups were provided with dietary recommendations for calorie intake and macronutrient distribution, coupled with personalized goal setting for glucose control and healthy eating, without any specific emphasis on weight reduction or changes in physical activity. Regular visits were scheduled every 10 days to perform measurements and replace CGMs. Data were analyzed using General Linear Model with repeated measures. Over the 30-day follow-up period, both groups experienced significant reductions in weight and fat mass. The treatment group exhibited two-fold greater reductions in both weight and fat mass, a significant decrease in carbohydrate intake, and a significant increase in time spent on physical activitycompared to the control group. In addition, compliance was notably higher in the treatment group. These findings indicate that overweight or obese individuals with prediabetes can achieve weight loss and improved body composition through personalized education for glucose control, without exclusively emphasizing weight loss as the primary objective. Additionally, the real-time feedback provided by CGM enhances these improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary and Behavioral Interventions for Diabetes)
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10 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Real-World Use of Hybrid Closed-Loop Systems during Diabetes Camp: A Preliminary Study for Secure Configuration Strategies in Children and Adolescents
by María José Olid-Cárdenas, Alfonso Lendínez-Jurado, Gabriela Monroy-Rodríguez, Ana Gómez-Perea, Ana Cano-Ortiz, Ana B. Ariza-Jiménez, Ana García-Ruiz, Patricia Jiménez-Cuenca, María José Picón-César and Isabel Leiva-Gea
Nutrients 2024, 16(14), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16142210 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 500
Abstract
The introduction of closed-loop systems in the pediatric population has been a revolution in the management and evolution of diabetes. However, there are not many published studies in situations in which the feeding, schedules, and activities of the children deviate from the routine [...] Read more.
The introduction of closed-loop systems in the pediatric population has been a revolution in the management and evolution of diabetes. However, there are not many published studies in situations in which the feeding, schedules, and activities of the children deviate from the routine for which the systems were programmed, as in the case of a summer camp for children and adolescents with diabetes, where the specific programming of this device is not well known. It was a single-center prospective preliminary study. A total of twenty-seven patients (mean age 11.9 ± 1.9 years, 40% male, duration of diabetes 6.44 ± 2.83 years) were included (twenty with Medtronic MiniMed 780G system and seven with Tandem Control-IQ). Glucometric variables and pump functionality were monitored during the 7-day camp and in the following 3 weeks. There was no decrease from the objective TIR 70% at any moment. The worst results in Time Below Range were at 72 h from starting the camp, and the worst results in Time Above Range were in the first 24 h, with a progressive improvement after that. No episodes of level 3 hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis occurred. The use of specific programming in two integrated systems, with complex blood glucose regulation algorithms and not-prepared-for situations with increased levels of physical activity or abrupt changes in feeding routines, did not result in an increased risk of level 3 hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis for our pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, regardless of the closed-loop device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary and Behavioral Interventions for Diabetes)
24 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Experiences and Acceptability of a Weight Loss Intervention for Diabetes (Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial—DiRECT) in Aotearoa New Zealand: A Qualitative Study within a Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial
by Kate Campbell, Meredith Peddie, Natalie Ashton, Kim Ma’ia’i, Takiwai Russell-Camp, Jim Mann, Justine Camp and Andrew N. Reynolds
Nutrients 2024, 16(12), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16121853 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 925
Abstract
The Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial (DiRECT) demonstrated that substantial weight loss and remission from type 2 diabetes can be achieved with low-energy total diet replacement and behavioural support. However, the acceptability of the DiRECT intervention in diverse populations with strong cultural emphases on [...] Read more.
The Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial (DiRECT) demonstrated that substantial weight loss and remission from type 2 diabetes can be achieved with low-energy total diet replacement and behavioural support. However, the acceptability of the DiRECT intervention in diverse populations with strong cultural emphases on food and shared eating remains unclear. We conducted a qualitative study nested within a pilot randomised controlled trial of DiRECT in one Māori (the Indigenous people of New Zealand) primary care provider in Aotearoa New Zealand. Participants with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, obesity, and a desire to lose weight were randomised to either dietitian-supported usual care or the dietitian-supported DiRECT intervention for twelve months. The DiRECT intervention included three months of total diet replacement, then food reintroduction and supported weight loss maintenance. At three and twelve months, semi-structured interviews explored the acceptability of DiRECT and participants’ experiences of each intervention. Interview transcripts from 25 participants (aged 48 ± 10 years, 76% female, 78% Māori or Pacific) at three months and 15 participants at twelve months were analysed. Participants viewed their pre-enrolment selves as unhealthy people with poor eating habits and desired professional weight loss support. For DiRECT participants, the total diet replacement phase was challenging but well-received, due to rapid improvements in weight and health. Food reintroduction and weight loss maintenance each presented unique challenges requiring effective strategies and adaptability. All participants considered individualised and empathetic dietetic support crucial to success. Sociocultural factors influencing success were experienced in both interventions: family and social networks provided support and motivation; however, eating-related norms were identified as challenges. The DiRECT intervention was considered an acceptable approach to weight loss in participants with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes with strong cultural emphases on food and shared eating. Our findings highlight the importance of individualised and culturally relevant behavioural support for effective weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary and Behavioral Interventions for Diabetes)
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15 pages, 1644 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Interplay of Dietary Intake and Eating Behavior in Type 2 Diabetes
by Ana Maria Gal, Camelia Oana Iatcu, Alina Delia Popa, Lidia Iuliana Arhire, Laura Mihalache, Andreea Gherasim, Otilia Nita, Raluca Meda Soimaru, Roxana Gheorghita, Mariana Graur and Mihai Covasa
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060771 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Diet and eating behavior both play a crucial role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and eating behavior in a population of patients with [...] Read more.
Diet and eating behavior both play a crucial role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and eating behavior in a population of patients with T2DM. A cross-sectional study was performed using 416 patients with T2DM and their dietary intake and eating behavior were assessed with validated questionnaires. Women scored significantly higher than men for emotional and restrained eating (p < 0.001). Correlation analyses showed that emotional eaters consumed significantly more calories (r = 0.120, p = 0.014) and fat (r = 0.101, p = 0.039), as well as non-alcoholic beverages for women (r = 0.193, p = 0.003) and alcohol for men (r = 0.154, p = 0.038). Also, individuals who ate based on external cues consumed significantly more calories (r = 0.188, p < 0.001) and fat (r = 0.139, p = 0.005). These results demonstrate that eating behavior influences dietary intake. Understanding this relationship could optimize diabetes management and allow for more individualized nutritional guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary and Behavioral Interventions for Diabetes)
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44 pages, 6606 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Aromatic Herbs and Spices Present in the Mediterranean Diet on the Glycemic Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by María Carmen Garza, Sofía Pérez-Calahorra, Carmen Rodrigo-Carbó, María Antonia Sánchez-Calavera, Estíbaliz Jarauta, Rocío Mateo-Gallego, Irene Gracia-Rubio and Itziar Lamiquiz-Moneo
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060756 - 7 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 19653
Abstract
Background: The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is the dietary pattern par excellence for managing and preventing metabolic diseases, such as Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). The MedDiet incorporates spices and aromatic herbs, which are abundant sources of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is the dietary pattern par excellence for managing and preventing metabolic diseases, such as Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). The MedDiet incorporates spices and aromatic herbs, which are abundant sources of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of all aromatic herbs and spices included in the MedDiet, such as black cumin, clove, parsley, saffron, thyme, ginger, black pepper, rosemary, turmeric, basil, oregano, and cinnamon, on the glycemic profile in T2DM subjects. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for interventional studies investigating the effect of these aromatic herbs and spices on the glycemic profile in T2DM subjects. Results: This systematic review retrieved 6958 studies, of which 77 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 45 were included in the meta-analysis. Our results showed that cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, black cumin, and saffron significantly improved the fasting glucose levels in T2DM subjects. The most significant decreases in fasting glucose were achieved after supplementation with black cumin, followed by cinnamon and ginger, which achieved a decrease of between 27 and 17 mg/dL. Conclusions: Only ginger and black cumin reported a significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin, and only cinnamon and ginger showed a significant decrease in insulin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary and Behavioral Interventions for Diabetes)
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