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Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021) | Viewed by 31695

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland 1072, New Zealand
Interests: ageing; functional status; falls prevention; nutrition
Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Interests: ageing; nutrition; heart health; physical activity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Across one’s lifespan, intake of food and nutrients promotes and constrains development, maturation and ageing. Examining associations between patterns of food intake and/or specific macro and micro nutrients, and health outcomes presents challenges in research design, analysis and interpretation. Working towards and testing innovative strategies to improve health outcomes through nutritional mechanisms is a key developmental area with the potential to bring significant benefits to individuals and public health.  

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation” welcomes well-designed studies examining underpinning evidence for nutritional innovation, development of innovation or testing of innovative nutritional strategies across the lifespan.

Prof. Dr. Ngaire Kerse
Dr. Ruth Teh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Clinical study
  • Supplements
  • Fortification
  • Health improvement
  • Growth and development
  • Longitudinal studies

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
The Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Telomere Length in the Very-Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study
by Sarah Hakeem, Nuno Mendonça, Terry Aspray, Andrew Kingston, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Louise Robinson and Tom R. Hill
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124341 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
(1) Introduction: vitamin D may maintain the telomere length, either directly or via the inflammation effect and/or modulating the rate of cell proliferation. Whilst results from cross-sectional studies investigating the association between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length have been mixed, there is a [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: vitamin D may maintain the telomere length, either directly or via the inflammation effect and/or modulating the rate of cell proliferation. Whilst results from cross-sectional studies investigating the association between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length have been mixed, there is a dearth of data from prospective studies which have assessed these associations. This study aimed to examine the association between 25(OH)D concentration in plasma and telomere length in blood cells in very-old adults (≥85 years old) at baseline, 18 months and 36 months by controlling for related lifestyle factors. (2) Methodology: our prospective cohort study comprised 775 participants from the Newcastle 85+ Study who had 25(OH)D measurements at baseline. Plasma 25(OH)D was stratified as <25 nmol/L (low), 25–50 nmol/L (moderate) and >50 nmol/L (high). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline, 18 and 36 months from baseline. (3) Results: a positive significant association was found between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length amongst very-old participants at baseline (95% CI = 12.0–110.3, B = 61.2 ± 5.0, p = 0.015). This association was negative at 18 months (95% CI = −59.9–−7.5, B = −33.7 ± 13.3, p = 0.012) but was non-significant at 36 months. (4) Conclusion: Circulating 25(OH)D concentration shows inconsistent relationships with telomere length over time in very-old (85+ year old) adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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12 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Dietary Protein Intake and Transition between Frailty States in Octogenarians Living in New Zealand
by Ruth Teh, Nuno Mendonça, Marama Muru-Lanning, Sue MacDonell, Louise Robinson and Ngaire Kerse
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2843; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082843 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2449
Abstract
Adequate nutritional status may influence progression to frailty. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of frailty and examine the relationship between dietary protein intake and the transition between frailty states and mortality in advanced age. We used data from [...] Read more.
Adequate nutritional status may influence progression to frailty. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of frailty and examine the relationship between dietary protein intake and the transition between frailty states and mortality in advanced age. We used data from a longitudinal cohort study of Māori (80–90 years) and non-Māori (85 years). Dietary assessments (24-h multiple pass dietary recalls) were completed at the second year of follow-up (wave 2 and forms the baseline in this study). Frailty was defined using the Fried Frailty criteria. Multi-state modelling examined the association of protein intake and transitions between frailty states and death over four years. Over three quarters of participants were pre-frail or frail at baseline (62% and 16%, respectively). Those who were frail had a higher co-morbidity (p < 0.05), where frailty state changed, 44% showed a worsening of frailty status (robust → pre-frail or pre-frail → frail). Those with higher protein intake (g/kg body weight/day) were less likely to transition from robust to pre-frail [Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.28 (0.08–0.91)] but also from pre-frail to robust [0.24 (0.06–0.93)]. Increased protein intake was associated with lower risk of transitioning from pre-frailty to death [0.19 (0.04–0.80)], and this association was moderated by energy intake [0.22 (0.03–1.71)]. Higher protein intake in this sample of octogenarians was associated with both better and worse outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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21 pages, 5127 KiB  
Article
Association of Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Protein Intake Patterns in Older Adults: A Multi-Study Analysis across Five Countries
by Ilianna Lourida, Jolanda M. A. Boer, Ruth Teh, Ngaire Kerse, Nuno Mendonça, Anna Rolleston, Stefania Sette, Heli Tapanainen, Aida Turrini, Suvi M. Virtanen, Marjolein Visser and Carol Jagger
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082574 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Physical activity and protein intake are associated with ageing-related outcomes, including loss of muscle strength and functional decline, so may contribute to strategies to improve healthy ageing. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between physical activity or sedentary behaviour and protein intake patterns in [...] Read more.
Physical activity and protein intake are associated with ageing-related outcomes, including loss of muscle strength and functional decline, so may contribute to strategies to improve healthy ageing. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between physical activity or sedentary behaviour and protein intake patterns in community-dwelling older adults across five countries. Self-reported physical activity and dietary intake data were obtained from two cohort studies (Newcastle 85+ Study, UK; LiLACS, New Zealand Māori and Non-Māori) and three national food consumption surveys (DNFCS, The Netherlands; FINDIET, Finland; INRAN-SCAI, Italy). Associations between physical activity and total protein intake, number of eating occasions providing protein, number of meals with specified protein thresholds, and protein intake distribution over the day (calculated as a coefficient of variance) were assessed by regression and repeated measures ANOVA models adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity was associated with higher total protein intake and more eating occasions containing protein, although associations were mostly explained by higher energy intake. Comparable associations were observed for sedentary behaviour in older adults in Italy. Evidence for older people with higher physical activity or less sedentary behaviour achieving more meals with specified protein levels was mixed across the five countries. A skewed protein distribution was observed, with most protein consumed at midday and evening meals without significant differences between physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels. Findings from this multi-study analysis indicate there is little evidence that total protein and protein intake patterns, irrespective of energy intake, differ by physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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14 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
The Diet Quality and Nutrition Inadequacy of Pre-Frail Older Adults in New Zealand
by Esther Tay, Daniel Barnett, Evelingi Leilua, Ngaire Kerse, Maisie Rowland, Anna Rolleston, Debra L. Waters, Richard Edlin, Martin Connolly, Leigh Hale, Avinesh Pillai and Ruth Teh
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072384 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3510
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the diet quality of pre-frail community-dwelling older adults to extend the evidence of nutrition in frailty prevention. Pre-frailty, the transition state between a robust state and frailty, was ascertained using the FRAIL scale. Socio-demographic, health status, and 24-h [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the diet quality of pre-frail community-dwelling older adults to extend the evidence of nutrition in frailty prevention. Pre-frailty, the transition state between a robust state and frailty, was ascertained using the FRAIL scale. Socio-demographic, health status, and 24-h dietary recalls were collected from 465 community-dwelling adults aged 75+ (60 years for Māori and Pacific people) across New Zealand. Diet quality was ascertained with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Participants (median (IQR) age 80 (77–84), 59% female) had a moderately healthful diet, DQI-I score: 60.3 (54.0–64.7). Women scored slightly higher than men (p = 0.042). DQI-I components identified better dietary variety in men (p = 0.044), and dietary moderation in women (p = 0.002); both sexes performed equally well in dietary adequacy and poorly in dietary balance scores (73% and 47% of maximum scores, respectively). Low energy 20.3 (15.4–25.3) kcal/kg body weight (BW) and protein intakes 0.8 (0.6–1.0) g/kg BW were coupled with a high prevalence of mineral inadequacies: calcium (86%), magnesium (68%), selenium (79%), and zinc (men 82%). In conclusion, the diet quality of pre-frail older adults was moderately high in variety and adequacy but poor in moderation and balance. Our findings support targeted dietary interventions to ameliorate frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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14 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Body Weight Status and Energy Intake among Users and Non-Users of Dietary Supplements among Government Employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia
by Muhamad Hasrol Mohd Ashri, Hazizi Abu Saad and Siti Nur Άsyura Adznam
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072248 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
The use of dietary supplements is prevalent among many groups worldwide. However, few studies have examined their use among government employees. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association among sociodemographic characteristics, body weight status, and energy intake with dietary [...] Read more.
The use of dietary supplements is prevalent among many groups worldwide. However, few studies have examined their use among government employees. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association among sociodemographic characteristics, body weight status, and energy intake with dietary supplement use among government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 460 government employees from six ministries in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The data used in this study were collected through anthropometric measurements (height, weight, % body fat, waist and hip circumferences), a self-administered questionnaire (sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplements use), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire (24-hour dietary recall; fruit and vegetable intake). The results indicated that the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 55.4%, with vitamin C (38.4%) being the most popular type of dietary supplement. Health issues (80.8%) were the most common reason for usage, internet (59.2%) was the main source of information, and pharmacies (71.8%) were the most indicated places to purchase dietary supplements. A multivariate analysis showed that participants who were female, married, had better monthly income, lived within a smaller household size, had a normal body mass index, classified as having unhealthily high body fat percentage, did not skip breakfast, and consumed at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day were significantly more likely to use dietary supplements. In conclusion, health-conscious groups were more prone to consume dietary supplements, and due to the high prevalence of dietary supplement use, dissemination of accurate scientific information regarding dietary supplements is highly recommended among government employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
12 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Multiple Micronutrients, Including Zinc, Selenium and Iron, Are Positively Associated with Anemia in New Zealand Aged Care Residents
by Sue O. MacDonell, Jody C. Miller, Michelle J. Harper, Malcolm R. Reid, Jillian J. Haszard, Rosalind S. Gibson and Lisa A. Houghton
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041072 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Anemia is a significant comorbidity for older adults not fully attributable to iron deficiency. Low-grade inflammation and other micronutrient deficiencies also contribute. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between nutrient and non-nutrient factors with hemoglobin and anemia in 285 residents (>65 years) of [...] Read more.
Anemia is a significant comorbidity for older adults not fully attributable to iron deficiency. Low-grade inflammation and other micronutrient deficiencies also contribute. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between nutrient and non-nutrient factors with hemoglobin and anemia in 285 residents (>65 years) of 16 New Zealand aged-care facilities. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, sTfR, hepcidin, zinc, selenium, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), (with ferritin, sTfR, zinc and selenium adjusted for inflammation). Linear regression models examined the relationships between micronutrient biomarkers (iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin B-12 and D), age, sex, and health factors with hemoglobin. Thirty-two percent of participants exhibited anemia, although <2% had either depleted iron stores or iron deficiency. Plasma zinc and selenium deficiencies were present in 72% and 38% of participants, respectively. Plasma zinc and total body iron (TBI) were positively associated (p < 0.05) with hemoglobin, while gastric acid suppressing medications, hepcidin, and interleukin-6 were inversely associated. These relationships were maintained after the application of anemia cut-offs. These findings emphasize the importance of considering multiple micronutrient deficiencies as risk factors for anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
19 pages, 4052 KiB  
Article
Energy, Sugars, Iron, and Vitamin B12 Content of Commercial Infant Food Pouches and Other Commercial Infant Foods on the New Zealand Market
by Ioanna Katiforis, Elizabeth A Fleming, Jillian J Haszard, Tiana Hape-Cramond, Rachael W Taylor and Anne-Louise M Heath
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020657 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5441
Abstract
There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in “pouches”. Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing [...] Read more.
There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in “pouches”. Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019–2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for “dairy” and “sweet snacks”. All “dry cereals” were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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10 pages, 582 KiB  
Article
Recent Trends in Dietary Habits of the Italian Population: Potential Impact on Health and the Environment
by Marilena Vitale, Annalisa Giosuè, Olga Vaccaro and Gabriele Riccardi
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020476 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4423
Abstract
Population growth, globalization, urbanization, and economic pressures are causing changes in food consumption all over the world. The study’s aims are (1) to evaluate trends in food habits in Italy to highlight deviations from the traditional Mediterranean diet, (2) to analyze the features [...] Read more.
Population growth, globalization, urbanization, and economic pressures are causing changes in food consumption all over the world. The study’s aims are (1) to evaluate trends in food habits in Italy to highlight deviations from the traditional Mediterranean diet, (2) to analyze the features of the present Italian diet that should be modified to meet evidence-based global scientific targets for a healthy and sustainable diet proposed by the EAT–Lancet Commission. Trends in food availability for human consumption during the period 2000–2017 were assessed using the food balance sheets (FBSs). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was estimated according to life cycle assessment (LCA) analyses. During the study period, the availability of animal fat and beef meat greatly declined (−58% and −32%, respectively), followed by fruit, potatoes, vegetables, milk, and non-tropical oils (−20%, −15%, −13%, −14%, and −11%, respectively). A substantial increase has occurred for tropical oils, fish, and nuts (+156, +26%, and +21%, respectively). In order to meet the targets of consumption proposed by the EAT–Lancet Commission, the consumption of legumes and nuts should be almost doubled, whereas the consumption of meat, eggs, dairy products, animal fat, tropical oils, and sugars should be reduced by proportions ranging from 60% to 90%. If implemented, these changes would reduce the diet-related greenhouse gas emission by nearly 50%. In conclusion, these data call for nutritional education programs and interventions on the food system aimed at promoting a healthier and more environmentally sustainable diet. To this end, the availability and affordability of products with a better impact on human health and the environment should be promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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Review

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16 pages, 292 KiB  
Review
Social Modeling and Eating Behavior—A Narrative Review
by Julia Suwalska and Paweł Bogdański
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041209 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3764
Abstract
Social modeling of eating is the adjustment of the amount of food eaten to the intake of the accompanying person. In this paper we provide a narrative review of literature on social modeling of eating with a particular focus on recent studies. Firstly, [...] Read more.
Social modeling of eating is the adjustment of the amount of food eaten to the intake of the accompanying person. In this paper we provide a narrative review of literature on social modeling of eating with a particular focus on recent studies. Firstly, we describe the structure of a typical modeling experiment. Secondly, we present a variety of research in this field: experiments with various types of confederates, experiments aimed at the evaluation of the influence of gender, partner’s body weight, type of food, hunger, personal characteristics, etc. Thirdly, we present practical implications of this knowledge. The common conclusion is that social modeling of eating occurs in different situations and consumption is adapted to the standards established by the eating partner, but is not their direct reflection. Social influence of eating is not restricted to "artificial" laboratory situations; social modeling and social norms manipulations may be used to change people’s dietary practices, especially in children and young adults. Within the home environment parental modeling has been shown to promote children’s snacking and fruit and vegetable consumption. Social modeling may be used in nutrition interventions aimed at the improvement of children’s diet and in obesity prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition during the Lifespan: Underpinning Innovation?)
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