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Fibre Intake Is Independently Associated with Increased Circulating Interleukin-22 in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome

1
School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
2
School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PY, UK
3
Inflammatory Disease Biology and Therapeutics Group/Immunopathology Group, Translational Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
4
Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
5
Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
6
K.G. Jebsen Center of Exercise in Medicine, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
7
SHAPE Research Centre, Exercise Science and Clinical Exercise Physiology, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040815
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Abstract

The positive effects of dietary fibre on gut barrier function and inflammation have not been completely elucidated. Mice studies show gut barrier disruption and diet-induced insulin resistance can be alleviated by cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22). However, little is known about IL-22 in humans and its association with gut-beneficial nutrients like fibre. We investigated whether fibre intake was associated with circulating levels of IL-22 in 48 participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Bivariate analysis was used to explore associations between circulating IL-22, fibre intake, MetS factors, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, V ˙ O2peak). Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) was used to test the independent association of fibre intake with circulating IL-22, adjusting for variables correlated with IL-22. Circulating IL-22 was positively associated with fibre intake (rs = 0.393, p < 0.006). The HMR-adjusted model explained 40% of circulating IL-22 variability, and fibre intake significantly improved the prediction model by 8.4% (p < 0.022). Participants with fibre intake above median intake of 21.5 g/day had a significantly higher circulating IL-22 than the lower intake group (308.3 ± 454.4 vs. 69.0 ± 106.4 pg/mL, p < 0.019). Fibre intake is independently associated with increased circulating IL-22 in individuals with MetS. Findings warrant further investigations to evaluate whether changes in dietary fibre intake alter circulating IL-22, and its effects on health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary fibre; immune response; metabolic endotoxemia dietary fibre; immune response; metabolic endotoxemia
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Torquati, L.; Coombes, J.S.; Murray, L.; Hasnain, S.Z.; Mallard, A.R.; McGuckin, M.A.; Fassett, R.G.; Croci, I.; Ramos, J.S. Fibre Intake Is Independently Associated with Increased Circulating Interleukin-22 in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2019, 11, 815.

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