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Special Issue "Health Effects of Nut Consumption"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rachel Brown

Department of Human Nutrition University of Otago, Dunedin,New Zealand
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nuts; nut consumption; cardiovascular disease; nutrition interventions; energy balance; consumer acceptance of nuts
Guest Editor
Dr. Siew Ling Tey

Department of Human Nutrition University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nuts; energy density; nutrition interventions; heart disease; diabetes; obesity; ageing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on the health effects of nuts.  Current guidelines in a number of countries emphasise the inclusion of nuts as part of a cardioprotective diet. Recent research has investigated the effects of regular nut consumption on a wide range of risk factors for a number of different chronic diseases. The continued investigation of these risk factors, as well as other novel biomarkers of chronic disease, are important for guiding nut consumption recommendations.  

This Special Issue aims to bring together up-to-date reviews and cutting-edge original research in the field of health effects of nut consumption. We welcome manuscripts on long-term, short-term and acute human studies, as well as epidemiological research on a wide range of outcomes associated with nut consumption. We also invite submissions of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on nut consumption.

We invite you to submit your latest research on the health effects of nut consumption.

Assoc. Prof. Rachel Brown
Dr. Siew Ling Tey
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nuts
  • Chronic disease
  • Cardiometabolic risk
  • Human health
  • Energy balance
  • Dietary patterns
  • Snacks
  • Microbiota
  • Phytochemicals
  • Ageing
  • Appetite
  • Cognitive Function

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Glucoregulatory and Cardiometabolic Profiles of Almond vs. Cracker Snacking for 8 Weeks in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080960
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The transition to nutritional independence makes new college students vulnerable to alterations in eating patterns, which can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the potential benefits of almond vs. cracker snacking in improving glucoregulatory and
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The transition to nutritional independence makes new college students vulnerable to alterations in eating patterns, which can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the potential benefits of almond vs. cracker snacking in improving glucoregulatory and cardiometabolic profiles in new college students. A randomized controlled, parallel-arm, 8-week intervention of 73 college students (BMI: 18–41 kg/m2) with no cardiometabolic disorders was conducted. Participants were randomized into either an almond snack group (56.7 g/day; 364 kcal; n = 38) or Graham cracker control group (77.5 g/day; 338 kcal/d; n = 35). Chronic, static changes were assessed from fasting serum/plasma samples at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks. Acute, dynamic effects were assessed during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8 weeks. Almond snacking resulted in a smaller decline in HDL cholesterol over 8 weeks (13.5% vs. 24.5%, p < 0.05), 13% lower 2-h glucose area under the curve (AUC), 34% lower insulin resistance index (IRI) and 82% higher Matsuda index (p < 0.05) during the OGTT, despite similar body mass gains over 8 weeks compared with the cracker group. In general, both almond and cracker snacking reduced fasting glucose, and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions: Incorporating a morning snack in the dietary regimen of predominantly breakfast-skipping, first-year college students had some beneficial effects on glucoregulatory and cardiometabolic health. Almond consumption has the potential to benefit postprandial glucoregulation in this cohort. These responses may be influenced by cardiometabolic risk factor status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle Mastication of Nuts under Realistic Eating Conditions: Implications for Energy Balance
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060710
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened
[...] Read more.
The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensations and gut hormone concentrations following walnut consumption (whole or butter). In a randomized, cross-over design with 50 adults (25 males, 25 females; Body Mass Index (BMI) 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2; age: 18–52 years old (y/o), the chewing forces and particle size distribution of chewed nuts were measured under different chewing conditions. Appetite sensations were measured at regular intervals for 3 h after nut intake, and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The three nuts displayed different particle sizes at swallowing though no differences in chewing forces were observed. Walnuts with yogurt yielded larger particle sizes than the other treatments. Particle size was not correlated with either food palatability or flavor. Fullness sensations were higher after whole nut than nut butter consumption though there were no significant changes in glucose, insulin, or GLP-1 concentrations under any condition. Changing the conditions at swallowing might influence the release of energy from nuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030316
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in
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Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13–14 years) and children (6–7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children’s parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m2 lower than the never group (p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of −0.079 kg/m2. In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6–7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Can Nuts Mitigate Malnutrition in Older Adults? A Conceptual Framework
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101448
Received: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
The proportion of adults aged over 60 years in the world is expected to reach 20% by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with several physiological changes that increase the risk of malnutrition among this population. Malnutrition is characterized by deficiencies or insufficiencies
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The proportion of adults aged over 60 years in the world is expected to reach 20% by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with several physiological changes that increase the risk of malnutrition among this population. Malnutrition is characterized by deficiencies or insufficiencies of macro- and micronutrients. Malnutrition has detrimental effects on the health, wellbeing, and quality of life in older adults. Nuts are rich in energy, unsaturated fats, and protein, as well as other nutrients that provide a range of health benefits. While the effects of nuts on overnutrition have been studied extensively, very few studies have been specifically designed to understand the role of nuts in mitigating undernutrition in the elderly. Therefore, this review explores the potential role of nuts in improving the nutritional status of older adults who are at risk of undernutrition. Several properties of whole nuts, some of which appear important for addressing overnutrition, (e.g., hardness, lower-than-expected nutrient availability, satiety-enhancing effects) may limit their effectiveness as a food to combat undernutrition. However, we propose that modifications such as transforming the physical form of nuts, addressing the timing of nut ingestion, and introducing variety may overcome these barriers. This review also discusses the feasibility of using nuts to prevent and reverse undernutrition among older adults. We conclude with a recommendation to conduct clinical studies in the future to test this conceptual framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
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