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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010116

The Effects of Nut Consumption on Vascular Function

1
School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, Australia
2
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 31 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
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Abstract

Vascular stiffness can be measured using numerous techniques including assessments of central haemodynamics, aortic arterial stiffness, and indices of aortic wave reflection and endothelial dilatation. Impaired vascular function is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological studies indicate that regular nut consumption reduces CVD risk, with one of the proposed mechanisms being via improvements in vascular function. This narrative review summarizes the evidence from a systematic search of the literature of the effects of tree nut and peanut consumption on measures of vascular function excluding flow mediated dilatation. A total of 16 studies were identified, with a mix of acute controlled studies (n = 3), an uncontrolled pre/post chronic study (n = 1), chronic crossover (n = 7) and parallel studies (n = 5). Nut types tested included almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts, with dose and length of supplementation varying greatly across studies. Most studies (n = 13) included individuals at risk for CVD, according to various criteria. Findings were inconsistent, with ten studies reporting no significant changes in vascular function and six studies (one acute and five chronic studies) reporting improvements in at least one measure of vascular function. In summary, nuts have the potential to improve vascular function and future studies should consider the population, dose and length of nut supplementation as well as suitability of the different vascular function techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree nuts; peanuts; arterial stiffness; vascular reactivity; cardiovascular disease risk tree nuts; peanuts; arterial stiffness; vascular reactivity; cardiovascular disease risk
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Morgillo, S.; Hill, A.M.; Coates, A.M. The Effects of Nut Consumption on Vascular Function. Nutrients 2019, 11, 116.

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