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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121935

Nuts and Cardio-Metabolic Disease: A Review of Meta-Analyses

1
Department of Food and Nutrition/Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, General Post Office Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
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Abstract

Objectives: Accumulating epidemiological and intervention evidence suggest that nut consumption is associated with reduced incidence of some cardiometabolic diseases. However, to date no review of meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies has evaluated the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease. Design/Results: Electronic searches for meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies were undertaken in PubMed®/MEDLINE®. Meta-analyses of prospective studies show that nut consumption appears to be associated with reduced all-cause mortality by 19–20% (n = 6), cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence (19%; n = 3) and mortality (25%; n = 3), coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence (20–34%; n = 2) and mortality (27–30%; n = 2) and stroke incidence (10–11%; n = 7) and mortality (18%; n = 2). No association between nut consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was observed in meta-analyses of prospective studies, whereas a decrease in fasting blood glucose ranging from 0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L was observed in 3 meta-analyses of intervention studies. In the interventions, nut consumption also had favorable effects on total cholesterol (0.021 to 0.28 mmol/L reduction from 8 meta-analyses of interventions) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L reduction from 8 meta-analyses of interventions) and endothelial function (0.79 to 1.03% increase in flow-mediated dilation from 4 meta-analyses of interventions). Nut consumption did not significantly affect body weight. Nut consumption had no effect on inflammatory markers in intervention studies. The effect on blood pressure was inconsistent. A higher nut consumption was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension in prospective studies, while nut consumption did not improve blood pressure in intervention studies. Conclusions: Nut consumption appeared to be associated with lower all-cause mortality and CVD and CHD mortality. There was no association between nut consumption and the incidence of T2DM although fasting blood glucose is decreased in intervention studies. In intervention studies nuts lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). View Full-Text
Keywords: nuts; meta-analyses; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease nuts; meta-analyses; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease
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Kim, Y.; Keogh, J.; Clifton, P.M. Nuts and Cardio-Metabolic Disease: A Review of Meta-Analyses. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1935.

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