Special Issue "Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 28153

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gemma Chiva-Blanch
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain;
2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain
Interests: nutrition; atherosclerosis; thrombosis; metabolic syndrome; Mediterranean Diet; Nordic Diet; polyphenols; fatty acids
Prof. Dr. Montserrat Cofán
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain;
2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metabolic syndrome is defined by a cluster of interrelated cardiovascular risk factors (hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and central adiposity), linked to a chronic, systemic, and low-grade inflammation, which severely increases the risk of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A growing body of evidence generated in the last decades has shown that not only the energy balance but also the macro-, micro-, and non-nutrient composition of the diet may influence the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome. However, further research is required to increase our understanding about the contribution of diet to metabolic syndrome prevention.

The aim of this proposed Special Issue entitled “Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Syndrome” is to gather original research manuscripts, meta-analysis, and reviews dealing with the relationships between diet as a whole and metabolic syndrome-related diseases, as well as with the effects of specific nutrients or non-nutritional bioactive compounds on this metabolic condition and related pathologic features.

Dr. Gemma Chiva-Blanch
Prof. Dr. Montserrat Cofán
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Metabolic diseases
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Diet
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Inflammation
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Phytonutrients

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Three-Month Consumption of Eggs Enriched with ω-3, ω-5 and ω-7 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Significantly Decreases the Waist Circumference of Subjects at Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020663 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), rumenic acid (RmA), and punicic acid (PunA) are claimed to influence several physiological functions including insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, we investigated the combined effect of ALA, DHA, RmA [...] Read more.
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), rumenic acid (RmA), and punicic acid (PunA) are claimed to influence several physiological functions including insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, we investigated the combined effect of ALA, DHA, RmA and PunA on subjects at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four women and men were randomly assigned to two groups. Each day, they consumed two eggs enriched with oleic acid (control group) or enriched with ALA, DHA, RmA, and PunA (test group) for 3 months. The waist circumference decreased significantly (−3.17 cm; p < 0.001) in the test group. There were no major changes in plasma insulin and blood glucose in the two groups. The dietary treatments had no significant effect on endothelial function as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry, although erythrocyte nitrosylated hemoglobin concentrations tended to decrease. The high consumption of eggs induced significant elevations in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001), which did not result in any change in the LDL/HDL ratio in both groups. These results indicate that consumption of eggs enriched with ALA, DHA, RmA and PunA resulted in favorable changes in abdominal obesity without affecting other factors of the metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Animal Protein Intake Is Positively Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Korean Men
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113415 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Few studies have examined the relationship of protein intake by food source with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults, even though animal food intake has increased. This study examined the association between plant and animal protein intake and metabolic syndrome among middle-aged Korean adults. [...] Read more.
Few studies have examined the relationship of protein intake by food source with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults, even though animal food intake has increased. This study examined the association between plant and animal protein intake and metabolic syndrome among middle-aged Korean adults. A total of 13,485 subjects aged 30–64 years were selected from the 2013–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Protein intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recall data and divided into quintiles. Men had a higher percentage of energy intake from animal protein (7.4%) than plant protein (6.9%). Men in the highest quintile group of animal protein intake had a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00–1.70), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.07–1.90), and elevated fasting glucose (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01–1.74), after adjusting for covariates. Furthermore, stronger associations of animal protein intake with abdominal obesity were shown in men who consumed less than estimated energy requirements (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.11–2.31). Plant protein intake was negatively associated with increased blood pressure in men. Neither animal nor plant protein intakes were significantly associated with any of the metabolic syndrome risk factors in women. The results imply that lower animal protein intake may be a beneficial factor for metabolic syndrome management in middle-aged Korean men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Dietary Influence on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the TwinsUK Cohort
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072130 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Nutrition plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Here, we examine associations between nutrient intakes and BP in a large predominantly female population-based cohort. We assessed the correlation between 45 nutrients (from food frequency questionnaires) and systolic BP/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) in [...] Read more.
Nutrition plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Here, we examine associations between nutrient intakes and BP in a large predominantly female population-based cohort. We assessed the correlation between 45 nutrients (from food frequency questionnaires) and systolic BP/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) in 3889 individuals from TwinsUK not on hypertensive treatments and replicated in an independent subset of monozygotic twins discordant for nutrient intake (17–242 pairs). Results from both analyses were meta-analysed. For significant nutrients, we calculated heritability using structural equation modelling. We identified and replicated 15 nutrients associated with SBP, 9 also being associated with DBP, adjusting for covariates and multiple testing. 14 of those had a heritable component (h2: 27.1–57.6%). Strong associations with SBP were observed for riboflavin (Beta(SE) = −1.49(0.38), P = 1.00 × 10−4) and tryptophan (−0.31(0.01), P = 5 × 10−4), while with DBP for alcohol (0.05(0.07), P = 1.00 × 10−4) and lactose (−0.05(0.0), P = 1.3 × 10−3). Two multivariable nutrient scores, combining independently SBP/DBP-associated nutrients, explained 22% of the variance in SBP and 13.6% of the variance in DBP. Moreover, bivariate heritability analysis suggested that nutrients and BP share some genetic influences. We confirm current understanding and extend the panel of dietary nutrients implicated in BP regulation underscoring the value of nutrient focused dietary research in preventing and managing hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
5-cis-, Trans- and Total Lycopene Plasma Concentrations Inversely Relate to Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Subjects
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061696 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Diabetic subjects are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, the common soil of most of the cardiovascular complications, is more prevalent and extensive in this population due not only to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, but also to inflammation and oxidative stress. [...] Read more.
Diabetic subjects are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, the common soil of most of the cardiovascular complications, is more prevalent and extensive in this population due not only to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, but also to inflammation and oxidative stress. Lycopenes are bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities mostly supplied by tomato and tomato byproducts. We investigated the association between circulating lycopenes and carotid plaque burden in diabetic patients, in a cross-sectional study in 105 newly diagnosed diabetic subjects. Atheroma plaque (wall thickness ≥ 1.5 mm), number of plaques, and plaque burden (sum of maximum heights of all plaques) were assessed by sonographic evaluation of carotid arteries. Plasma lycopenes (5-cis-, 9-cis-, 13-cis-, and trans-lycopene) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry HPLC-MS. Atheroma plaque was observed in 75 participants, from which 38 presented one plaque and 37 two or more carotid plaques. No differences were observed in the plasmatic concentrations of lycopenes between subjects with and without atherosclerotic plaque presence. However, plaque burden was inversely associated with 5-cis-lycopene, all cis-lycopene isomers, trans-lycopene, and total lycopene isomers (all, p < 0.05). High plasma levels of lycopenes inversely relate to atherosclerotic burden. We provide novel evidence that suggests that the consumption of compounds found in tomato and tomato byproducts might be beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Association of Dietary Patterns and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metabolically Homogeneous Subgroups in the KORA FF4 Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061684 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
There is evidence that a change in lifestyle, especially physical activity and diet, can reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response to dietary changes varies among individuals due to differences in metabolic characteristics. Therefore, we investigated the association [...] Read more.
There is evidence that a change in lifestyle, especially physical activity and diet, can reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response to dietary changes varies among individuals due to differences in metabolic characteristics. Therefore, we investigated the association between dietary patterns and T2DM while taking into account these differences. For 1287 participants of the population-based KORA FF4 study (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), we identified three metabolically-homogenous subgroups (metabotypes) using 16 clinical markers. Based on usual dietary intake data, two diet quality scores, the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), were calculated. We explored the associations between T2DM and diet quality scores. Multi-variable adjusted models, including metabotype subgroup, were fitted. In addition, analyses stratified by metabotype were carried out. We found significant interaction effects between metabotype and both diet quality scores (p < 0.05). In the analysis stratified by metabotype, significant negative associations between T2DM and both diet quality scores were detected only in the metabolically-unfavorable homogenous subgroup (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.39–0.90 for AHEI and OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40–0.96 for MDS). Prospective studies taking metabotype into account are needed to confirm our results, which allow for the tailoring of dietary recommendations in the prevention of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
Article
Acute Effects of the Consumption of Passiflora setacea Juice on Metabolic Risk Factors and Gene Expression Profile in Humans
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041104 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Background: Passiflora setacea (PS) is a passionfruit variety of the Brazilian savannah and is a rich source of plant food bioactives with potential anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an acute intake of PS juice upon inflammation, metabolic parameters, [...] Read more.
Background: Passiflora setacea (PS) is a passionfruit variety of the Brazilian savannah and is a rich source of plant food bioactives with potential anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an acute intake of PS juice upon inflammation, metabolic parameters, and gene expression on circulating immune cells in humans. Methods: Overweight male volunteers (n = 12) were enrolled in two double-blind placebo-controlled studies. Blood samples were collected from fasting volunteers 3 h after the consumption of 250 mL of PS juice or placebo (PB). Metabolic parameters (insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total triglycerides) and circulating cytokines were evaluated (study 1). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from the same subjects were isolated and RNA was extracted for transcriptomic analyses using microarrays (study 2). Results: Insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels decreased statistically after the PS juice intake, whereas HDL level increased significantly. Interleukin (IL)-17A level increased after placebo consumption, whereas its level remained unchanged after PS juice consumption. Nutrigenomic analyses revealed 1327 differentially expressed genes after PS consumption, with modulated genes involved in processes such as inflammation, cell adhesion, or cytokine–cytokine receptor. Conclusion: Taken together, these clinical results support the hypothesis that PS consumption may help the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review

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Review
The Legacy Effect in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113227 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
The “legacy effect” describes the long-term benefits that may persist for many years after the end of an intervention period, involving different biological processes. The legacy effect in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention has been evaluated by a limited number of studies, mostly based [...] Read more.
The “legacy effect” describes the long-term benefits that may persist for many years after the end of an intervention period, involving different biological processes. The legacy effect in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention has been evaluated by a limited number of studies, mostly based on pharmacological interventions, while few manuscripts on dietary interventions have been published. Most of these studies are focused on intensive treatment regimens, whose main goal is to achieve tight control of one or more cardiovascular risk factors. This review aims to summarise the legacy effect-related results obtained in those studies and to determine the existence of this effect in CVD prevention. There is sufficient data to suggest the existence of a legacy effect after intensive intervention on cardiovascular risk factors; however, this effect is not equivalent for all risk factors and could be influenced by patient characteristics, disease duration, and the type of intervention performed. Currently, available evidence suggests that the legacy effect is greater in subjects with moderately-high cardiovascular risk but without CVD, especially in those patients with recent-onset diabetes. However, preventive treatment for CVD should not be discontinued in high-risk subjects, as the level of existing evidence on the legacy effect is low to moderate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Very Long Chain Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Atherothrombotic Heart Disease. A Brief Review, with a Focus on Metabolic Effects
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103014 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The global burden of atherothrombotic heart disease should be considered as a life-style disorder where differences in dietary habits and related risk factors like limited physical activity and adiposity together play important roles. Related metabolic changes have been scientifically elucidated in recent decades, [...] Read more.
The global burden of atherothrombotic heart disease should be considered as a life-style disorder where differences in dietary habits and related risk factors like limited physical activity and adiposity together play important roles. Related metabolic changes have been scientifically elucidated in recent decades, and the role of the very-long-chain marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been much focused on, especially their possible effects on processes like inflammation and thrombosis. In the present brief review of related metabolic mechanisms, the effects of these fatty acids in a clinical setting have been referred to, including some of the authors’ work on this topic. The main focus is the divergent results in the field and the important differences between the study population, the type of supplements and fresh marine sources, the proportion of EPA versus DHA dosages, and the duration of supplementation in clinical trials. We conclude that daily intake of at least 1 g of EPA + DHA may improve a dysmetabolic state in the population. The potential to reduce the risk and progression of atherothrombotic heart disease is still a matter of debate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Dietary Strategies for Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102983 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 7248
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors, characterized by abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), hypertension, and insulin resistance. Lifestyle modifications, especially dietary habits, are the main therapeutic strategy for the treatment and management of metabolic syndrome, [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors, characterized by abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), hypertension, and insulin resistance. Lifestyle modifications, especially dietary habits, are the main therapeutic strategy for the treatment and management of metabolic syndrome, but the most effective dietary pattern for its management has not been established. Specific dietary modifications, such as improving the quality of the foods or changing macronutrient distribution, showed beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome conditions and individual parameters. On comparing low-fat and restricted diets, the scientific evidence supports the use of the Mediterranean Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention as the new paradigm for metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. The nutritional distribution and quality of these healthy diets allows health professionals to provide easy-to-follow dietary advice without the need for restricted diets. Nonetheless, energy-restricted dietary patterns and improvements in physical activity are crucial to improve the metabolic disturbances observed in metabolic syndrome patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
Nutrition, Bioenergetics, and Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092785 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5191
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the global nutrition report shows that whilst part of the world’s population starves, the other part suffers from obesity and associated complications. A balanced diet counterparts these extreme conditions with the proper proportion, composition, quantity, and [...] Read more.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the global nutrition report shows that whilst part of the world’s population starves, the other part suffers from obesity and associated complications. A balanced diet counterparts these extreme conditions with the proper proportion, composition, quantity, and presence of macronutrients, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds. However, little is known on the way these components exert any influence on our health. These nutrients aiming to feed our bodies, our tissues, and our cells, first need to reach mitochondria, where they are decomposed into CO2 and H2O to obtain energy. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and mainly responsible for nutrients metabolism, but they are also the main source of oxidative stress and cell death by apoptosis. Unappropriated nutrients may support mitochondrial to become the Trojan horse in the cell. This review aims to provide an approach to the role that some nutrients exert on mitochondria as a major contributor to high prevalent Western conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of pathologic conditions which promotes type II diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Clinical and experimental data extracted from in vitro animal and cell models further demonstrated in patients, support the idea that a balanced diet, in a healthy lifestyle context, promotes proper bioenergetic and mitochondrial function, becoming the best medicine to prevent the onset and progression of MetS. Any advance in the prevention and management of these prevalent complications help to face these challenging global health problems, by ameliorating the quality of life of patients and reducing the associated sociosanitary burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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Review
All You Can Feed: Some Comments on Production of Mouse Diets Used in Biomedical Research with Special Emphasis on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010163 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
The laboratory mouse is the most common used mammalian research model in biomedical research. Usually these animals are maintained in germ-free, gnotobiotic, or specific-pathogen-free facilities. In these facilities, skilled staff takes care of the animals and scientists usually don’t pay much attention about [...] Read more.
The laboratory mouse is the most common used mammalian research model in biomedical research. Usually these animals are maintained in germ-free, gnotobiotic, or specific-pathogen-free facilities. In these facilities, skilled staff takes care of the animals and scientists usually don’t pay much attention about the formulation and quality of diets the animals receive during normal breeding and keeping. However, mice have specific nutritional requirements that must be met to guarantee their potential to grow, reproduce and to respond to pathogens or diverse environmental stress situations evoked by handling and experimental interventions. Nowadays, mouse diets for research purposes are commercially manufactured in an industrial process, in which the safety of food products is addressed through the analysis and control of all biological and chemical materials used for the different diet formulations. Similar to human food, mouse diets must be prepared under good sanitary conditions and truthfully labeled to provide information of all ingredients. This is mandatory to guarantee reproducibility of animal studies. In this review, we summarize some information on mice research diets and general aspects of mouse nutrition including nutrient requirements of mice, leading manufacturers of diets, origin of nutrient compounds, and processing of feedstuffs for mice including dietary coloring, autoclaving and irradiation. Furthermore, we provide some critical views on the potential pitfalls that might result from faulty comparisons of grain-based diets with purified diets in the research data production resulting from confounding nutritional factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
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