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Article

Association of Dietary Patterns and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metabolically Homogeneous Subgroups in the KORA FF4 Study

1
Independent Research Group Clinical Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
2
Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München at UNIKA-T (Universitäres Zentrum für Gesundheitswissenschaften am Klinikum Augsburg), Neusässer Str. 47, 86156 Augsburg, Germany
3
Division of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, CH-8001 Zurich, Switzerland
4
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
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German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
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Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Auf’m Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
7
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Pettenkoferstr. 8a & 9, 80336 Munich, Germany
8
Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universität München, Lazarettstr. 36, 80636 Munich
9
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstr. 22, 89081 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061684
Received: 8 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Disorders)
There is evidence that a change in lifestyle, especially physical activity and diet, can reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response to dietary changes varies among individuals due to differences in metabolic characteristics. Therefore, we investigated the association between dietary patterns and T2DM while taking into account these differences. For 1287 participants of the population-based KORA FF4 study (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), we identified three metabolically-homogenous subgroups (metabotypes) using 16 clinical markers. Based on usual dietary intake data, two diet quality scores, the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), were calculated. We explored the associations between T2DM and diet quality scores. Multi-variable adjusted models, including metabotype subgroup, were fitted. In addition, analyses stratified by metabotype were carried out. We found significant interaction effects between metabotype and both diet quality scores (p < 0.05). In the analysis stratified by metabotype, significant negative associations between T2DM and both diet quality scores were detected only in the metabolically-unfavorable homogenous subgroup (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.39–0.90 for AHEI and OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40–0.96 for MDS). Prospective studies taking metabotype into account are needed to confirm our results, which allow for the tailoring of dietary recommendations in the prevention of T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; dietary pattern; metabotype; metabolic phenotype; Mediterranean Diet Score; Alternate Healthy Eating Index diabetes mellitus; dietary pattern; metabotype; metabolic phenotype; Mediterranean Diet Score; Alternate Healthy Eating Index
MDPI and ACS Style

Wawro, N.; Pestoni, G.; Riedl, A.; Breuninger, T.A.; Peters, A.; Rathmann, W.; Koenig, W.; Huth, C.; Meisinger, C.; Rohrmann, S.; Linseisen, J. Association of Dietary Patterns and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metabolically Homogeneous Subgroups in the KORA FF4 Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1684. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061684

AMA Style

Wawro N, Pestoni G, Riedl A, Breuninger TA, Peters A, Rathmann W, Koenig W, Huth C, Meisinger C, Rohrmann S, Linseisen J. Association of Dietary Patterns and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metabolically Homogeneous Subgroups in the KORA FF4 Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1684. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061684

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wawro, Nina, Giulia Pestoni, Anna Riedl, Taylor A. Breuninger, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Rathmann, Wolfgang Koenig, Cornelia Huth, Christa Meisinger, Sabine Rohrmann, and Jakob Linseisen. 2020. "Association of Dietary Patterns and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Metabolically Homogeneous Subgroups in the KORA FF4 Study" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1684. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061684

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