Vegetarian Diet Patterns and Their Impact on Common Chronic Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 4060

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 122 Balicka St., 30-149 Krakow, Poland
Interests: cancer prevention; human nutrition; nutrigenomics; nutrition and immunity; functional food

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Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow, Poland
Interests: functional food; cancer prevention; plant food origin; bioactive compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular around the world, partly because of their perceived health benefits. These include various types of vegetarian and vegan diets, as well as different types of dietary patterns with a large proportion of plant-based products. It is well known that compared to conventional dietary patterns, these diets contain a greater amount of fiber, antioxidants and phytochemicals, and at the same time, less total fat (including saturated fat), sugar and sodium. A large body of evidence suggests that vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This Special Issue aims to provide evidence on the correlations between vegetarian dietary intake and reducing the risk of chronic diseases, explaining these relationships and filling the research gap in order to better define the health effects of vegetarian dietary patterns. It would be useful to know the results of studies to determine the health effects of vegetarian dietary patterns, as well as to assess the degree of clinical benefit in observational studies

Dr. Aneta Koronowicz
Dr. Mariola Drozdowska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • vegetarian
  • dietary pattern
  • chronic diseases
  • plant-based
  • prevention
  • public health
  • sustainable healthy diets

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Changes in Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations during the AntioxObesity Weight Reduction Program among Adults with Excessive Body Weight
by Jadwiga Hamulka, Agnieszka Sulich, Magdalena Górnicka and Marta Jeruszka-Bielak
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234890 - 23 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Plasma carotenoid concentrations are associated with antioxidant defense which might be disturbed in people with excessive body weight (EBW). This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a 6-week weight reduction program on plasma concentration of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin in adults with [...] Read more.
Plasma carotenoid concentrations are associated with antioxidant defense which might be disturbed in people with excessive body weight (EBW). This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a 6-week weight reduction program on plasma concentration of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin in adults with EBW. A total of 130 adults were recruited for the study; 75 completed the program. Data on food consumption were collected with a 3-day recording method and a semi-quantitative FFQ. Body height, body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured. Lipid profile, β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were analyzed in blood. The AntioxObesity program resulted in a significant reduction in BW, WC, FM, SAT, and VAT. The mean plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin increased significantly after intervention. A reduction in FM above 4 kg significantly increased the concentration of β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids. An increase in carotenoid levels correlated with FM reduction, as fruit and vegetable intake remained unchanged. However, this effect may vary due to gender, HDL-cholesterol, body fat content, and obesity status in the weight loss process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Diet Patterns and Their Impact on Common Chronic Diseases)
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20 pages, 3055 KiB  
Article
Curly Kale (Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica L.) Biofortified with 5,7-Diiodo-8-quinolinol: The Influence of Heat Treatment on Iodine Level, Macronutrient Composition and Antioxidant Content
by Justyna Waśniowska, Teresa Leszczyńska, Aneta Kopeć, Ewa Piątkowska, Sylwester Smoleń, Joanna Krzemińska, Iwona Kowalska, Jacek Słupski, Ewelina Piasna-Słupecka, Katarzyna Krawczyk and Aneta Koronowicz
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4730; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224730 - 9 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Many disorders are a result of an inadequate supply of macronutrients and micronutrients in the diet. One such element is iodine. This study used curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica L.) biofortified with the 5,7-diiodo-8-quinolinol iodine compound. The effect of the heat [...] Read more.
Many disorders are a result of an inadequate supply of macronutrients and micronutrients in the diet. One such element is iodine. This study used curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. Sabellica L.) biofortified with the 5,7-diiodo-8-quinolinol iodine compound. The effect of the heat treatment on the chemical composition of the curly kale was studied. In addition, iodine bioavailability was evaluated in in vivo studies. Our investigation showed that iodine loss depends on the type of heat treatment as well as on the variety of kale. Curly kale biofortified with iodoquinoline had significantly higher iodine levels after thermal processing (steaming, blanching, boiling) than the vegetable biofortified with KIO3. Generally, steaming was the best thermal processing method, as it contributed to the lowest iodine loss in curly kale. The red variety of kale, ‘Redbor F1’, showed a better iodine stability during the heat treatment than the green variety, ‘Oldenbor F1’. The thermal treatment also significantly affected the dry matter content and the basic chemical composition of the tested varieties of the 5,7-diI-8-Q biofortified kale. The steaming process caused a significant increase in total carbohydrates, fiber, protein and crude fat content (‘Oldenbor F1’, ‘Redbor F1’), and antioxidant activity (‘Oldenbor F1’). On the other hand, boiling caused a significant decrease, while steaming caused a significant increase, in protein and dry matter content (‘Oldenbor F1’, ‘Redbor F1’). The blanching process caused the smallest significant decrease in ash compared to the other thermal processes used (‘Oldenbor F1’). A feeding experiment using Wistar rats showed that iodine from the 5,7-diI-8-Q biofortified kale has a higher bioavailability than that from the AIN-93G diet. A number of promising results have been obtained, which could form the basis for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Diet Patterns and Their Impact on Common Chronic Diseases)
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23 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Different Types of Diet on the Prevention of Diseases among Polish Inhabitants, Including COVID-19 Disease
by Justyna Gołębiowska, Anna Zimny-Zając, Sebastian Makuch, Mateusz Dróżdż, Krzysztof Dudek, Joanna Żórawska, Grzegorz Mazur and Siddarth Agrawal
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183947 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Proper nutrition may help in preventing deaths or at least alleviating the symptoms of many chronic diseases. While the COVID-19 disease was still taking its toll, the world had to adjust to new life conditions, which could change nutritional habits. In this observational, [...] Read more.
Proper nutrition may help in preventing deaths or at least alleviating the symptoms of many chronic diseases. While the COVID-19 disease was still taking its toll, the world had to adjust to new life conditions, which could change nutritional habits. In this observational, cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify the potential correlations between sociodemographic factors and diet and the presence of common chronic diseases among Polish inhabitants. Furthermore, we tried to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in nutritional habits. Therefore, based on the online study (the National Test for Poles’ Health (NTPH), we collected data from 376,102 and 200,000 respondents in two different time frames (before the COVID-19 pandemic: 2019–2020 and during the COVID-19 pandemic: 2021–2022, respectively). Despite the rapid global rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, among our study group, hypertension was still the most commonly occurring disease in both time frames (32.33% in 2019–2020 and 34.95% in 2021–2022, p < 0.001). Furthermore, more chronic diseases were reported during the COVID-19 pandemic than in 2019–2020. Regarding sociodemographic factors, male respondents were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes (OR = 1.35 CI 95% (1.28–1.43), p < 0.001; and OR = 1.20 CI 95% (1.11–1.30), p < 0.001). Vegetarian diet decreases the likelihood of hypertension, neurological disease, and diabetes (OR = 0.69, CI 95% (0.60–0.81), p < 0.001; OR = 0.72, CI 95% (0.59–0.88), p = 0.001; and OR = 0.73, CI 95% (0.55–0.96), p = 0.026). In line with this, consuming meat meals increases the risk of hypertension (OR = 1.09, CI 95% (1.02–1.17), p = 0.009). Interestingly, a reduced-sodium diet has an association with decreased morbidity of COVID-19 disease (OR = 0.72, CI 95% (0.63–0.82), p < 0.001). This result brings new light to more research to be done to allow efficient prevention of this disease. In conclusion, our study shows the beneficial role of a balanced diet in reducing the incidence rate of common chronic diseases. Our findings may be educational for those who would like to change their nutritional habits and/or for public health professionals to suggest the implementation of proper diets to their patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Diet Patterns and Their Impact on Common Chronic Diseases)
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