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Human Brain Shows Recurrent Non-Canonical MicroRNA Editing Events Enriched for Seed Sequence with Possible Functional Consequence

1
CSIR-Institute of Genomics & Integrative Biology, Delhi 110025, India
2
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201002, India
3
Translational Medicine Unit, Biomedical Research Centre, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Non-Coding RNA 2020, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna6020021
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification, which can provide tissue-specific functions not encoded in DNA. Adenosine-to-inosine is the predominant editing event and, along with cytosine-to-uracil changes, constitutes canonical editing. The rest is non-canonical editing. In this study, we have analysed non-canonical editing of microRNAs in the human brain. We have performed massively parallel small RNA sequencing of frontal cortex (FC) and corpus callosum (CC) pairs from nine normal individuals (post-mortem). We found 113 and 90 unique non-canonical editing events in FC and CC samples, respectively. More than 70% of events were in the miRNA seed sequence—implicating an altered set of target mRNAs and possibly resulting in a functional consequence. Up to 15% of these events were recurring and found in at least three samples, also supporting the biological relevance of such variations. Two specific sequence variations, C-to-A and G-to-U, accounted for over 80% of non-canonical miRNA editing events—and revealed preferred sequence motifs. Our study is one of the first reporting non-canonical editing in miRNAs in the human brain. Our results implicate miRNA non-canonical editing as one of the contributing factors towards transcriptomic diversity in the human brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; RNA editing; human brain microRNA; RNA editing; human brain
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Paul, D.; Ansari, A.H.; Lal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, A. Human Brain Shows Recurrent Non-Canonical MicroRNA Editing Events Enriched for Seed Sequence with Possible Functional Consequence. Non-Coding RNA 2020, 6, 21.

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