Special Issue "Role of microRNA in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms"

A special issue of Non-Coding RNA (ISSN 2311-553X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022 | Viewed by 6432

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Neil Renwick
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Translational RNA Biology, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
Interests: microRNA; non-coding RNA; RNA detection and analysis; molecular mechanisms; pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neuroendocrine neoplasms are highly heterogeneous tumors that are incompletely understood at the molecular level. Diagnosis is frequently delayed, pathologic classification can be challenging, and many patients develop non-curable metastatic disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA regulatory molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. These molecules are often dysregulated in tumorigenic processes and can also be used as disease biomarkers. Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that miRNAs mediate multiple aspects of neuroendocrine neoplasia and have clinical diagnostic utility. In this Special Issue, we focus on clinical, biological, and computational studies of miRNA-mediated gene regulation and dysregulation in all NENs (including lung carcinoids, small cell lung carcinoma, gastroenteropancreatic NENs, Merkel cell carcinoma, medullary thyroid cancer, pituitary adenoma, neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, etc.). A full understanding of miRNA changes in these diverse neoplasms will advance our knowledge of NEN biology and pave the way for novel diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic approaches.

We look forward to receiving your contribution to this Special Issue.

Dr. Neil Renwick
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • microRNA
  • microRNA-mediated gene regulation
  • microRNA-guided diagnostics
  • microRNA pathomechanisms
  • microRNA therapeutics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

Review
Role of MicroRNAs in Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer
Non-Coding RNA 2022, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna8020025 - 30 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Therapy-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-NEPC/NEPC) is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer (PCa) that frequently emerges in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) under the selective pressure of androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies. This variant is extremely aggressive, metastasizes to visceral organs, tissues, and bones despite [...] Read more.
Therapy-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-NEPC/NEPC) is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer (PCa) that frequently emerges in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) under the selective pressure of androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies. This variant is extremely aggressive, metastasizes to visceral organs, tissues, and bones despite low serum PSA, and is associated with poor survival rates. It arises via a reversible trans-differentiation process, referred to as ‘neuroendocrine differentiation’ (NED), wherein PCa cells undergo a lineage switch and exhibit neuroendocrine features, characterized by the expression of neuronal markers such as enolase 2 (ENO2), chromogranin A (CHGA), and synaptophysin (SYP). The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying NED in PCa are complex and not clearly understood, which contributes to a lack of effective molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of this variant. NEPC is thought to derive from prostate adenocarcinomas by clonal evolution. A characteristic set of genetic alterations, such as dual loss of retinoblastoma (RB1) and tumor protein (TP53) tumor suppressor genes and amplifications of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), NMYC, and EZH2, has been reported to drive NEPC. Recent evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important epigenetic players in driving NED in advanced PCa. In this review, we highlight the role of miRNAs in NEPC. These studies emphasize the diverse role that miRNAs play as oncogenes and tumor suppressors in driving NEPC. These studies have unveiled the important role of cellular processes such as the EMT and cancer stemness in determining NED in PCa. Furthermore, miRNAs are involved in intercellular communication between tumor cells and stromal cells via extracellular vesicles/exosomes that contribute to lineage switching. Recent studies support the promising potential of miRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for NEPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of microRNA in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
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Review
Regulation of Neuroendocrine-like Differentiation in Prostate Cancer by Non-Coding RNAs
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7040075 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) represents a variant of prostate cancer that occurs in response to treatment resistance or, to a much lesser extent, de novo. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms behind transdifferentiation of cancer cells to neuroendocrine-like cancer cells is essential for development [...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) represents a variant of prostate cancer that occurs in response to treatment resistance or, to a much lesser extent, de novo. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms behind transdifferentiation of cancer cells to neuroendocrine-like cancer cells is essential for development of new treatment opportunities. This review focuses on summarizing the role of small molecules, predominantly microRNAs, in this phenomenon. A published literature search was performed to identify microRNAs, which are reported and experimentally validated to modulate neuroendocrine markers and/or regulators and to affect the complex neuroendocrine phenotype. Next, available patients’ expression datasets were surveyed to identify deregulated microRNAs, and their effect on NEPC and prostate cancer progression is summarized. Finally, possibilities of miRNA detection and quantification in body fluids of prostate cancer patients and their possible use as liquid biopsy in prostate cancer monitoring are discussed. All the addressed clinical and experimental contexts point to an association of NEPC with upregulation of miR-375 and downregulation of miR-34a and miR-19b-3p. Together, this review provides an overview of different roles of non-coding RNAs in the emergence of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of microRNA in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
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Review
MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers in Pituitary Adenomas
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7030055 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are one of the most common lesions of intracranial neoplasms, occurring in approximately 15% of the general population. They are typically benign, although some adenomas show aggressive behavior, exhibiting rapid growth, drug resistance, and invasion of surrounding tissues. Despite ongoing [...] Read more.
Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are one of the most common lesions of intracranial neoplasms, occurring in approximately 15% of the general population. They are typically benign, although some adenomas show aggressive behavior, exhibiting rapid growth, drug resistance, and invasion of surrounding tissues. Despite ongoing improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, late first diagnosis is common, and patients with PAs are prone to relapse. Therefore, earlier diagnosis and prevention of recurrence are of importance to improve patient care. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding single stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. An increasing number of studies indicate that a deregulation of their expression patterns is related with pituitary tumorigenesis, suggesting that these small molecules could play a critical role in contributing to tumorigenesis and the onset of these tumors by acting either as oncosuppressors or as oncogenes, depending on the biological context. This paper provides an overview of miRNAs involved in PA tumorigenesis, which might serve as novel potential diagnostic and prognostic non-invasive biomarkers, and for the future development of miRNA-based therapeutic strategies for PAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of microRNA in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
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Review
MiRNA Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of Frequent Localizations
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7030038 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are infrequent malignant tumors of a neuroendocrine nature that arise in various organs. They occur most frequently in the lungs, intestines, stomach and pancreas. Molecular diagnostics and prognosis of NEN development are highly relevant. The role of clinical biomarkers can [...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are infrequent malignant tumors of a neuroendocrine nature that arise in various organs. They occur most frequently in the lungs, intestines, stomach and pancreas. Molecular diagnostics and prognosis of NEN development are highly relevant. The role of clinical biomarkers can be played by microRNAs (miRNAs). This work is devoted to the analysis of data on miRNA expression in NENs. For the first time, a search for specificity or a community of their functional characteristics in different types of NEN was carried out. Their properties as biomarkers were also analyzed. To date, more than 100 miRNAs have been characterized as differentially expressed and significant for the development of NEN tumors. Only about 10% of the studied miRNAs are expressed in several types of NEN; differential expression of the remaining 90% was found only in tumors of specific localizations. A significant number of miRNAs have been identified as potential biomarkers. However, only a few miRNAs have values that characterized their quality as markers. The analysis demonstrates the predominant specific expression of miRNA in each studied type of NEN. This indicates that miRNA’s functional features are predominantly influenced by the tissue in which they are formed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of microRNA in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: miRNA-mRNA target interactions in lung neuroendocrine tumor cell lines
Authors: Neil Renwick
Affiliation: Laboratory of Translational RNA Biology; Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine; Queen's University
Abstract: none

Title: (tentative): microRNA expression signature of ovarian pulmonary-type small cell carcinoma reveals similarities with small cell carcinoma of the lung. A peculiar case with a systematic review of the literature.
Authors: Anna Myriam Perrone1,2, Lorena Marchio3, Giulia Girolimetti3, Stefano Miglietta4, Anna Ghelli4, Noemi Laprovitera5, Antonio De Leo5, Dario De Biase5, Pierandrea De Iaco1,2, Manuela Ferracin5, Anna Mar
Affiliation: 1. Gynecology Oncology Unit, Dept. of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, Italy 2. IRCCS , Bologna, Italy 3. Unit of Medical Genetics, Dept. of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, Italy 4. Dept. of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FABIT), University of Bologna, Italy 5. Dept. of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Italy
Abstract: none

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