Special Issue "Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Djalal Trache
Website
Guest Editor
Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria
Interests: bio-based materials; nanocellulose; nanomaterials; characterization; analytical methods; kinetics; advanced materials; energetic materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Luigi T. Deluca
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Aerospace Science and Technology (Retired Professor), Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milan, Italy
Interests: aerospace propulsion; solid propellant; hybrid propellant; energetic materials; combustion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advancement in the synthesis approaches and the advent of tools of characterization of materials at multiple length scales have pushed the energetic materials community to explore new era. During the past two decades, several significant achievements in research on nanoenergetic materials (nEM) have been realized, thanks to the technological novelties in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. nEM have been found to be potential sources of extremely high heat release rates and tailored burning rates, reliability, extraordinary combustion efficiency, safety, and reduced sensitivity. These materials certainly play a vital role in widespread applications. The improvement of properties and the discovery of new functionalities and methodologies are key goals that cannot be reached without a better understanding of the preparation, characterization, manufacturing, and properties that constitute the starting points of the design of specific and adequate systems. The investigation of nanoenergetic materials has demonstrated both the academic and technological importance of, and offered great research opportunities within, cross-disciplinary areas. In our opinion, the applied aspects of such nanomaterials should get proper attention now and bring an interdisciplinary effort to address the various challenging issues researchers have been confronted with in this field in relation to a number of applications.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will attempt to publish high-quality short communications, research papers covering the most recent advances, as well as comprehensive reviews addressing novel and state-of-the-art topics from active researchers in nano-energetic materials, concerning not only the synthesis, preparation, and characterization of properties but especially focusing on the current and emerging applications of such nanomaterials with outstanding performances. Potential nano-energetic materials topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • The synthesis, characterization, and properties of nano-energetic materials with outstanding properties for next-generation applications;
  • The modification of nano-energetic materials;
  • The synthesis, characterization, and properties of nano-additives (catalysts, plasticizers, and coating agents) for energetic materials formulations;
  • Nano-energetic materials application (aerospace, defense, energy storage, the microelectromechanical system, automotive, micro-actuation, micro-fluidics, welding, and other applications).

Assoc. Prof. Djalal Trache
Prof. Luigi T. Deluca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoenergetic material
  • Nanothermite
  • Propellant
  • Explosive
  • Nano-oxidizer
  • Nano-fuel
  • Nano-polymer
  • Nanocomposite
  • Nano-catalyst
  • Carbon nanomaterial
  • Nano-coating
  • Preparation method
  • Characterization
  • Properties
  • Performance
  • Application.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hematite Nanoparticles Decorated on Carbon Mesospheres and Their Synergetic Action on the Thermal Decomposition of Nitrocellulose
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050968 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
In this study, carbon mesospheres (CMS) and iron oxide nanoparticles decorated on carbon mesospheres (Fe2O3-CMS) were effectively synthesized by a direct and simple hydrothermal approach. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been successfully dispersed in situ on a CMS [...] Read more.
In this study, carbon mesospheres (CMS) and iron oxide nanoparticles decorated on carbon mesospheres (Fe2O3-CMS) were effectively synthesized by a direct and simple hydrothermal approach. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been successfully dispersed in situ on a CMS surface. The nanoparticles obtained have been characterized by employing different analytical techniques encompassing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The produced carbon mesospheres, mostly spherical in shape, exhibited an average size of 334.5 nm, whereas that of Fe2O3 supported on CMS is at around 80 nm. The catalytic effect of the nanocatalyst on the thermal behavior of cellulose nitrate (NC) was investigated by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The determination of kinetic parameters has been carried out using four isoconversional kinetic methods based on DSC data obtained at various heating rates. It is demonstrated that Fe2O3-CMS have a minor influence on the decomposition temperature of NC, while a noticeable diminution of the activation energy is acquired. In contrast, pure CMS have a slight stabilizing effect with an increase of apparent activation energy. Furthermore, the decomposition reaction mechanism of NC is affected by the introduction of the nano-catalyst. Lastly, we can infer that Fe2O3-CMS may be securely employed as an effective catalyst for the thermal decomposition of NC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Controllable Electrically Guided Nano-Al/MoO3 Energetic-Film Formation on a Semiconductor Bridge with High Reactivity and Combustion Performance
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050955 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
Film-forming techniques and the control of heat release in micro-energetic chips or devices create challenges and bottlenecks for the utilization of energy. In this study, promising nano-Al/MoO3 metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) chips with an uniform distribution of particles were firstly designed via [...] Read more.
Film-forming techniques and the control of heat release in micro-energetic chips or devices create challenges and bottlenecks for the utilization of energy. In this study, promising nano-Al/MoO3 metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) chips with an uniform distribution of particles were firstly designed via a convenient and high-efficiency electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique at room temperature and under ambient pressure conditions. The mixture of isopropanol, polyethyleneimine, and benzoic acid proved to be an optimized dispersing agent for EPD. The kinetics of EPD for oxidants (Al) and reductants (MoO3) were systematically investigated, which contributed to adjusting the equivalence ratio of targeted energetic chips after changing the EPD dynamic behaviors of Al and MoO3 in suspension. In addition, the obtained nano-Al/MoO3 MIC energetic chips showed excellent heat-release performance with a high heat release of ca. 3340 J/g, and were successfully ignited with a dazzling flame recorded by a high-speed camera. Moreover, the fabrication method here is fully compatible with a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), which suggests promising potential in designing and developing other MIC energetic chips or devices for micro-ignition/propulsion applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Decomposition Behavior and Thermal Safety of Nitrocellulose with Different Shape CuO and Al/CuO Nanothermites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040725 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Bamboo leaf-like CuO(b) and flaky-shaped CuO(f) were prepared by the hydrothermal method, and then combined with Al nanoparticles to form Al/CuO(b) and Al/CuO(f) by the ultrasonic dispersion method. The phase, composition, morphology, and structure of the composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction [...] Read more.
Bamboo leaf-like CuO(b) and flaky-shaped CuO(f) were prepared by the hydrothermal method, and then combined with Al nanoparticles to form Al/CuO(b) and Al/CuO(f) by the ultrasonic dispersion method. The phase, composition, morphology, and structure of the composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy scattering spectrometer (EDS). The compatibility of CuO, Al/CuO and nitrocellulose (NC) was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effects of CuO and Al/CuO on the thermal decomposition of NC were also studied. The results show that the thermal decomposition reactions of CuO-NC composite, Al/CuO-NC composite, and NC follow the same kinetic mechanism of Avrami-Erofeev equation. In the cases of CuO and Al/CuO, they could promote the O-NO2 bond cleavage and secondary autocatalytic reaction in condensed phase. The effects of these catalysts have some difference in modifying the thermolysis process of NC due to the microstructures of CuO and the addition of Al nanopowders. Furthermore, the presence of Al/CuO(f) can make the Al/CuO(f)-NC composite easier to ignite, whereas the composites have strong resistance to high temperature. Compatibility and thermal safety analysis showed that the Al/CuO had good compatibility with NC and it could be used safely. This contribution suggests that CuO and Al/CuO played key roles in accelerating the thermal decomposition of NC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Supercritical Antisolvent Processing of Nitrocellulose: Downscaling to Nanosize, Reducing Friction Sensitivity and Introducing Burning Rate Catalyst
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101386 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A supercritical antisolvent process has been applied to obtain the nitrocellulose nanoparticles with an average size of 190 nm from the nitrocellulose fibers of 20 μm in diameter. Compared to the micron-sized powder, nano-nitrocellulose is characterized with a slightly lower decomposition onset, however, [...] Read more.
A supercritical antisolvent process has been applied to obtain the nitrocellulose nanoparticles with an average size of 190 nm from the nitrocellulose fibers of 20 μm in diameter. Compared to the micron-sized powder, nano-nitrocellulose is characterized with a slightly lower decomposition onset, however, the friction sensitivity has been improved substantially along with the burning rate increasing from 3.8 to 4.7 mm·s−1 at 2 MPa. Also, the proposed approach allows the production of stable nitrocellulose composites. Thus, the addition of 1 wt.% carbon nanotubes further improves the sensitivity of the nano-nitrocellulose up to the friction-insensitive level. Moreover, the simultaneous introduction of carbon nanotubes and nanosized iron oxide catalyzes the combustion process evidenced by a high-speed filming and resulting in the 20% burning rate increasing at 12 MPa. The presented approach to the processing of energetic nanomaterials based on the supercritical fluid technology opens the way to the production of nitrocellulose-based nanopowders with improved performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
An Electrospun Preparation of the NC/GAP/Nano-LLM-105 Nanofiber and Its Properties
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060854 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this work, an energetic composite fiber, in which 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) nanoparticles intimately incorporated with a nitrocellulose/glycidyl azide polymer (NC/GAP) fiber, was prepared by the electrospinning method. The morphology and structure of the nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive [...] Read more.
In this work, an energetic composite fiber, in which 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) nanoparticles intimately incorporated with a nitrocellulose/glycidyl azide polymer (NC/GAP) fiber, was prepared by the electrospinning method. The morphology and structure of the nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). The nanofibers possessed a three-dimensional (3D) net structure and a large specific surface area. Thermal analysis, energetic performance, and sensitivities were investigated, and they were compared with NC/GAP and LLM-105 nanoparticles. The NC/GAP/nano-LLM-105 nanofibers show higher decomposition rates and lower decomposition temperatures. The NC/GAP/nano-LLM-105 decomposed to CO2, CO, H2O, N2O, and a few NO, -CH2O-, and -CH- fragments, in the thermal-infrared spectrometry online (TG-IR) measurement. The NC/GAP/nano-LLM-105 nanofibers demonstrated a higher standard specific impulse (Isp), a higher combustion chamber temperature (Tc), and a higher specialty height (H50). The introduction of nano-LLM-105 in the NC/GAP matrix results in an improvement in energetic performance and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Gaseous Products Evolution Analyses for Catalytic Decomposition of AP by Graphene-Based Additives
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050801 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
A quantitative evaluation method has been developed to study the effects of nanoadditives on thermal decomposition mechanisms of energetic compounds using the conventional thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG/MS) technique. The decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) under the effect of several energetic catalysts [...] Read more.
A quantitative evaluation method has been developed to study the effects of nanoadditives on thermal decomposition mechanisms of energetic compounds using the conventional thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG/MS) technique. The decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) under the effect of several energetic catalysts has been investigated as a demonstration. In particular, these catalysts are transition metal (Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+) complexes of triaminoguanidine (TAG), using graphene oxide (GO) as dopant. They have been well-compared in terms of their catalytic effects on the concentration of the released gaseous products of AP. These detailed quantitative analyses of the gaseous products of AP provide a proof that the proton transfer between ∙O and O2 determines the catalytic decomposition pathways, which largely depend on the type of reactive centers of the catalysts. This quantitative method could be applied to evaluate the catalytic effects of any other additives on the thermal decomposition of various energetic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Transformation of Combustion Nanocatalysts inside Solid Rocket Motor under Various Pressures
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030381 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, the dependences of the morphology, particle sizes, and compositions of the condensed combustion products (CCP) of modified double-base propellants (1,3,5-trimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) as oxidizer) on the chamber pressure (<35 MPa) and nickel inclusion have been evaluated under a practical rocket motor [...] Read more.
In this paper, the dependences of the morphology, particle sizes, and compositions of the condensed combustion products (CCP) of modified double-base propellants (1,3,5-trimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) as oxidizer) on the chamber pressure (<35 MPa) and nickel inclusion have been evaluated under a practical rocket motor operation. It has been shown that higher pressure results in smaller average particle sizes of the CCPs. The CCPs of Ni-containing propellants have more diverse morphologies, including spherical particles, large layered structures, and small flakes coated on large particles depending on the pressure. The specific surface area (SSA) of CCPs is in the range of 2.49 to 3.24 m2 g−1 for propellants without nickel are less dependent on the pressure, whereas it is 1.22 to 3.81 Ni-based propellants. The C, N, O, Al, Cu, Pb, and Si are the major elements presented on the surfaces of the CCP particles of both propellants. The compositions of CCPs from Ni-propellant are much more diverse than another one, but only three or four major phases have been found for both propellants under any pressure. The metallic copper is presented in CCPs for both propellants when the chamber pressure is low. The lead salt as the catalyst has been transformed in to Pb(OH)Cl as the most common products of lead-based catalysts with pressure lower than 15 MPa. When pressure is higher than 5 MPa, the nickel-based CCPs has been found to contain one of the following crystalline phases: Pb2Ni(NO2)6, (NH4)2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O, C2H2NiO4·2H2O, and NiO, depending on the pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Al-Based Nano-Sized Composite Energetic Materials (Nano-CEMs): Preparation, Characterization, and Performance
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061039 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2020
Abstract
As one of the new types of functional materials, nano-sized composite energetic materials (nano-CEMs) possess many advantages and broad application prospects in the research field of explosives and propellants. The recent progress in the preparation and performance characterization of Al-based nano-CEMs has been [...] Read more.
As one of the new types of functional materials, nano-sized composite energetic materials (nano-CEMs) possess many advantages and broad application prospects in the research field of explosives and propellants. The recent progress in the preparation and performance characterization of Al-based nano-CEMs has been reviewed. The preparation methods and properties of Al-based nano-CEMs are emphatically analyzed. Special emphasis is focused on the improved performances of Al-based nano-CEMs, which are different from those of conventional micro-sized composite energetic materials (micro-CEMs), such as thermal decomposition and hazardous properties. The existing problems and challenges for the future work on Al-based nano-CEMs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)

Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Nanometer Ammonium Perchlorate and Ammonium Nitrate Prepared with 2D Network Structure via Rapid Freezing Technology
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111605 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Nanometer (nano) ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) were prepared with 2D network structures by the ultra-low temperature spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) were employed to probe the micron [...] Read more.
Nanometer (nano) ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) were prepared with 2D network structures by the ultra-low temperature spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) were employed to probe the micron structure, crystal phase, and thermal decomposition of nano AP and nano AN. SEM images revealed that the sizes of nano AP and AN were in the nanometer scale (<100 nm) in one dimension. XRD patterns showed that the crystal phases of nano AP and AN were in accordance with those of raw AP and raw AN, respectively. DSC traces indicated that the thermal decomposition process of AP depended on its particle size, while the thermolysis of AN was independent of the particle size of AN. TG-IR analyses illustrated that the decomposition products of nano AP were NO2, N2O, HCl and H2O, with a small amount of NOCl, and the main decomposition products of nano AN were N2O and H2O, with a small amount of NH3. The results of mechanical sensitivity tests indicated that nano AP was more sensitive than raw AP and both nano AN and raw AN were very insensitive to impact and friction stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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