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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030381

Transformation of Combustion Nanocatalysts inside Solid Rocket Motor under Various Pressures

1
Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi’an 710065, China
2
Science and Technology on Combustion, Internal Flow and Thermo-structure Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Abstract

In this paper, the dependences of the morphology, particle sizes, and compositions of the condensed combustion products (CCP) of modified double-base propellants (1,3,5-trimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) as oxidizer) on the chamber pressure (<35 MPa) and nickel inclusion have been evaluated under a practical rocket motor operation. It has been shown that higher pressure results in smaller average particle sizes of the CCPs. The CCPs of Ni-containing propellants have more diverse morphologies, including spherical particles, large layered structures, and small flakes coated on large particles depending on the pressure. The specific surface area (SSA) of CCPs is in the range of 2.49 to 3.24 m2 g−1 for propellants without nickel are less dependent on the pressure, whereas it is 1.22 to 3.81 Ni-based propellants. The C, N, O, Al, Cu, Pb, and Si are the major elements presented on the surfaces of the CCP particles of both propellants. The compositions of CCPs from Ni-propellant are much more diverse than another one, but only three or four major phases have been found for both propellants under any pressure. The metallic copper is presented in CCPs for both propellants when the chamber pressure is low. The lead salt as the catalyst has been transformed in to Pb(OH)Cl as the most common products of lead-based catalysts with pressure lower than 15 MPa. When pressure is higher than 5 MPa, the nickel-based CCPs has been found to contain one of the following crystalline phases: Pb2Ni(NO2)6, (NH4)2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O, C2H2NiO4·2H2O, and NiO, depending on the pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid propellants; condensed products; catalytic combustion; compositions; rocket motor solid propellants; condensed products; catalytic combustion; compositions; rocket motor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, J.-Q.; Liu, L.; Fu, X.; Tang, D.; Wang, Y.; Hu, S.; Yan, Q.-L. Transformation of Combustion Nanocatalysts inside Solid Rocket Motor under Various Pressures. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 381.

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