Special Issue "Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanofabrication and Nanomanufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 18 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Marcela Achimovičová
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia
Interests: mechanochemical synthesis; kinetics; ball milling; chalcogenides–metal sulphides; selenides; selenospinels; nanostructured semiconductors; surfactant-assisted milling; surface-modified nanoparticles; industrial milling; physicochemical and optical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mechanochemistry dealing with mechanochemical reactions that are induced by mechanical energy-milling has made significant progress in recent years. The identified hallmarks of this branch of chemistry include:

  • Influencing reactivity by creating interphases in composite and multi/phase systems, by defects in solids and by the existence of relaxation phenomena;
  • Creating well-crystallized cores of nanoparticles with disordered near-surface shell regions;
  • Performing simple, dry, time-convenient one-step syntheses;
  • Preparing nanomaterials, nanocomposites with properties set in advance;
  • Scaling up to industrial production; and
  • Feasibility of manufacturing under environmentally friendly and essentially waste-free conditions.

This Special Issue aims to collect scientific knowledge and examinations of all the “mechanochemists” conducting investigations in the field of Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology covering all aspects from inorganic and organic mechanochemical synthesis, elucidation of the mechanism of the mechanochemical reactions, metal–organic frameworks, nano-structured semiconductors and advanced synthesis of nanomaterials for solar cells, thermoelectrics, energy, hydrogen storage, biological and environmental applications, crystal engineering, industrial application of mechanochemistry in nanotechnology, and development of new approaches and methodologies.

Dr. Marcela Achimovičová
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mechanochemical synthesis
  • milling
  • nanomaterials
  • nanostructured materials
  • structural, morphological, and physicochemical characterization
  • industrial milling
  • new applications for nanotechnology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Mechanochemical Synthesis of Rosin-Modified Montmorillonite: A Breakthrough Approach to the Next Generation of OMMT/Rubber Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081974 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The current investigation presents a green mechanochemical procedure for the synthesis of a special kind of rubber-compatible organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) for use in the inner liner compound of tires. The compatibility character of the OMMT arises from the mechanochemical reaction of the raw bentonite [...] Read more.
The current investigation presents a green mechanochemical procedure for the synthesis of a special kind of rubber-compatible organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) for use in the inner liner compound of tires. The compatibility character of the OMMT arises from the mechanochemical reaction of the raw bentonite mineral and gum rosin as some of the organic constituents of the inner liner composition. The monitoring of OMMT synthesis by various characterization techniques reveals that gum rosin gradually intercalates into the montmorillonite (MMT) galleries during milling and increases the interlayer spacing to 41.1 ± 0.5 Å. The findings confirm the simultaneous formation of single- or few-layered OMMT platelets with average sizes from the sub-micron range up to several micrometers during the milling process. The mechanical properties of the OMMT/rubber nanocomposite, such as tensile strength, tear resistance and elongation, present a good enhancement in comparison to the un-modified material. Moreover, the organo-modification of the inner liner composition also leads to a property improvement of about 50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
Solvent-Free Mechanochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel Tellurides with Various Stoichiometries: NiTe, NiTe2 and Ni2Te3
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081959 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The paper reports the synthesis of nickel tellurides via a mechanochemical method from elemental precursors. NiTe, NiTe2, and Ni2Te3 were prepared by milling in stainless steel vials under nitrogen, using milling times from 1 h to 12 h. [...] Read more.
The paper reports the synthesis of nickel tellurides via a mechanochemical method from elemental precursors. NiTe, NiTe2, and Ni2Te3 were prepared by milling in stainless steel vials under nitrogen, using milling times from 1 h to 12 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), UV-VIS spectrometry, and thermal analysis (TGA and DSC). The products were obtained in the form of aggregates, several hundreds of nanometers in size, consisting of smaller nanosized crystallites. The magnetic measurements revealed a ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The band gap energies calculated using Tauc plots for NiTe, NiTe2, and Ni2Te3 were 3.59, 3.94, and 3.70 eV, respectively. The mechanochemical process has proved to be a simple and successful method for the preparation of binary nickel tellurides, avoiding the use of solvents, toxic precursors, and energy-consuming reaction conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
Effect of Nano-Y2O3 Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fe18Cr Films Fabricated by RF Magnetron Sputtering
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071754 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
In this work, FeCr-based films with different Y2O3 contents were fabricated using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effects of Y2O3 content on their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron [...] Read more.
In this work, FeCr-based films with different Y2O3 contents were fabricated using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effects of Y2O3 content on their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) and a nanoindenter. It was found that the Y2O3-doped FeCr films exhibited a nanocomposite structure with nanosized Y2O3 particles uniformly distributed into a FeCr matrix. With the increase of Y2O3 content from 0 to 1.97 wt.%, the average grain size of the FeCr films decreased from 12.65 nm to 7.34 nm, demonstrating a grain refining effect of Y2O3. Furthermore, the hardness of the Y2O3-doped FeCr films showed an increasing trend with Y2O3 concentration, owing to the synergetic effect of dispersion strengthening and grain refinement strengthening. This work provides a beneficial guidance on the development and research of composite materials of nanocrystalline metal with a rare earth oxide dispersion phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
Covalent Positioning of Single DNA Molecules for Nanopatterning
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071725 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Bottom-up micropatterning or nanopatterning can be viewed as the localization of target molecules to the desired area of a surface. A majority of these processes rely on the physical adsorption of ink-like molecules to the paper-like surface, resulting in unstable immobilization of the [...] Read more.
Bottom-up micropatterning or nanopatterning can be viewed as the localization of target molecules to the desired area of a surface. A majority of these processes rely on the physical adsorption of ink-like molecules to the paper-like surface, resulting in unstable immobilization of the target molecules owing to their noncovalent linkage to the surface. Herein, successive single nick-sealing facilitated the covalent immobilization of individual DNA molecules at defined positions on a dendron-coated silicon surface using atomic force microscopy. The covalently-patterned ssDNA was visualized when the streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles bound to the biotinylated DNA. The successive covalent positioning of the target DNA under ambient conditions may facilitate the bottom-up construction of DNA-based durable nanostructures, nanorobots, or memory system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
Mechanochemical Preparation of Magnetically Separable Fe and Cu-Based Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Vanillin Production
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11041050 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
A highly sustainable method for the preparation of supported iron oxide and copper nanoparticles (NPs) on a biomass-derived carbon by solvent-free mechanochemical process is reported. In-situ mechanochemically obtained extracts from orange peel could behave as a green reducing agent, allowing the formation of [...] Read more.
A highly sustainable method for the preparation of supported iron oxide and copper nanoparticles (NPs) on a biomass-derived carbon by solvent-free mechanochemical process is reported. In-situ mechanochemically obtained extracts from orange peel could behave as a green reducing agent, allowing the formation of Cu metal nanoparticles as well as generating a magnetic phase (magnetite) in the systems via partial Fe3+ reduction. At the same time, orange peel residues also served as template and carbon source, adding oxygen functionalities, which were found to benefit the catalytic performance of mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials. The series of magnetic [email protected] were tested in the oxidation of trans-ferulic acid towards vanillin, remarkably revealing a maximum vanillin yield of 82% for the sample treated at 200 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
SDS-Stabilized CuInSe2/ZnS Multinanocomposites Prepared by Mechanochemical Synthesis for Advanced Biomedical Application
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010069 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
The CuInSe2/ZnS multiparticulate nanocomposites were first synthesized employing two-step mechanochemical synthesis. In the first step, tetragonal CuInSe2 crystals prepared from copper, indium and selenium precursors were co-milled with zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium sulfide nonahydrate as precursors for ZnS in [...] Read more.
The CuInSe2/ZnS multiparticulate nanocomposites were first synthesized employing two-step mechanochemical synthesis. In the first step, tetragonal CuInSe2 crystals prepared from copper, indium and selenium precursors were co-milled with zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium sulfide nonahydrate as precursors for ZnS in different molar ratios by mechanochemical route in a planetary mill. In the second step, the prepared CuInSe2/ZnS nanocrystals were further milled in a circulation mill in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution (0.5 wt.%) to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles. The sodium dodecyl sulphate capped CuInSe2/ZnS 5:0-SDS nanosuspension was shown to be stable for 20 weeks, whereas the CuInSe2/ZnS 4:1-SDS one was stable for about 11 weeks. After sodium dodecyl sulphate capping, unimodal particle size distribution was obtained with particle size medians approaching, respectively, 123 nm and 188 nm for CuInSe2/ZnS 5:0-SDS and CuInSe2/ZnS 4:1-SDS nanocomposites. Successful stabilization of the prepared nanosuspensions due to sodium dodecyl sulphate covering the surface of the nanocomposite particles was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. The prepared CuInSe2/ZnS 5:0-SDS and CuInSe2/ZnS 4:1-SDS nanosuspensions possessed anti-myeloma sensitizing potential assessed by significantly reduced viability of multiple myeloma cell lines, with efficient fluorescence inside viable cells and higher cytotoxic efficacy in CuInSe2/ZnS 4:1-SDS nanosuspension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
Sustainable One-Step Solid-State Synthesis of Antibacterially Active Silver Nanoparticles Using Mechanochemistry
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112119 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
A combination of solid-state mechanochemical and green approaches for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is explored in this study. Thymus serpyllum L. (SER), Sambucus nigra L. (SAM) and Thymus vulgaris L. (TYM) plants were successfully applied to reduce AgNO3 to AgNPs, [...] Read more.
A combination of solid-state mechanochemical and green approaches for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is explored in this study. Thymus serpyllum L. (SER), Sambucus nigra L. (SAM) and Thymus vulgaris L. (TYM) plants were successfully applied to reduce AgNO3 to AgNPs, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, with SER being the best reducing agent, and TYM being the worst. The experiments were performed via a one-step planetary milling process, where various AgNO3:plant mass ratios (1:1, 1:10, 1:50 and 1:100) were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry indicated that the stability of the mechanochemically produced AgNPs increased markedly when a sufficiently large quantity of the reducing plant was used. Furthermore, when larger quantities of plant material were employed, the crystallite size of the AgNPs decreased. TEM analysis revealed that all AgNPs produced from both AgNO3:plant ratios 1:1 and 1:10 exhibit the bimodal size distribution with the larger fraction with size in tens of nm and the smaller one below 10 nm in size. The antibacterial activity of the produced AgNPs was observed only for AgNO3:plant ratio 1:1, with the AgNPs prepared using SER showing the greatest antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Article
Comparative Study of Nanostructured CuSe Semiconductor Synthesized in a Planetary and Vibratory Mill
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102038 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Copper(II) selenide, CuSe was prepared from Cu and Se powders in a stoichiometric ratio by a rapid, and convenient one-step mechanochemical synthesis, after 5 and 10 min of milling in a planetary, and an industrial vibratory, mill. The kinetics of the synthesis, and [...] Read more.
Copper(II) selenide, CuSe was prepared from Cu and Se powders in a stoichiometric ratio by a rapid, and convenient one-step mechanochemical synthesis, after 5 and 10 min of milling in a planetary, and an industrial vibratory, mill. The kinetics of the synthesis, and the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of CuSe products prepared in the two types of mill were studied. Their crystal structure, physical properties, and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, particle size distribution, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The products crystallized in a hexagonal crystal structure. However, a small amount of orthorhombic phase was also identified. The scanning electron microscopy revealed that both products consist of agglomerated particles of irregular shape, forming clusters with a size ~50 μm. Transmission electron microscopy proved the nanocrystalline character of the CuSe particles. The optical properties were studied using UV–Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The determined band gap energies of 1.6 and 1.8 eV for the planetary- and vibratory-milled product, respectively, were blue-shifted relative to the bulk CuSe. CuSe prepared in the vibratory mill had lower resistivity and higher conductivity, which corresponds to its larger crystallite size in comparison with CuSe prepared in the planetary mill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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Review

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Review
Mechanical Milling: A Superior Nanotechnological Tool for Fabrication of Nanocrystalline and Nanocomposite Materials
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102484 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Throughout human history, any society’s capacity to fabricate and refine new materials to satisfy its demands has resulted in advances to its performance and worldwide standing. Life in the twenty-first century cannot be predicated on tiny groupings of materials; rather, it must be [...] Read more.
Throughout human history, any society’s capacity to fabricate and refine new materials to satisfy its demands has resulted in advances to its performance and worldwide standing. Life in the twenty-first century cannot be predicated on tiny groupings of materials; rather, it must be predicated on huge families of novel elements dubbed “advanced materials”. While there are several approaches and strategies for fabricating advanced materials, mechanical milling (MM) and mechanochemistry have garnered much interest and consideration as novel ways for synthesizing a diverse range of new materials that cannot be synthesized by conventional means. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and nanocomposite materials can be easily obtained by MM. This review article has been addressed in part to present a brief history of ball milling’s application in the manufacture of a diverse variety of complex and innovative materials during the last 50 years. Furthermore, the mechanism of the MM process will be discussed, as well as the factors affecting the milling process. Typical examples of some systems developed at the Nanotechnology and Applications Program of the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research during the last five years will be presented in this articles. Nanodiamonds, nanocrystalline hard materials (e.g., WC), metal-matrix and ceramic matrix nanocomposites, and nanocrystalline titanium nitride will be presented and discussed. The authors hope that the article will benefit readers and act as a primer for engineers and researchers beginning on material production projects using mechanical milling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry and Nanotechnology)
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