Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 31732

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Even in the 21st century, infections remain a major problem for society and are one of the leading causes of mortality. Undesired bacterial contamination, attachment, and colonization also cause significant problems in many other areas, such as in food manufacturing and distribution, the marine industry, and many others. Despite the wide application of antibiotics, to this date, these problems have not found a complete solution. Moreover, the growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms threatens to make the problem even bigger over the coming years.

The extent of the problem of infections and undesired bacterial contamination has triggered massive research efforts by researchers around the World in an attempt to find a solution. One area of substantial promise is nanotechnology. Over the last three decades, scientists and engineers have made exciting discoveries of nanoscale materials capable of eliminating bacteria or preventing their attachment to surfaces.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to serve as an exciting collection of primary research and review articles of the recent progress in the field of synthesis, fabrication, and utilization of nanoscale materials for antibacterial applications.

Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Antibacterial nanoparticles and nanomaterials;
  • Nanoscale delivery vehicles for antibacterial agents;
  • Nanoscale coatings and surface modification strategies for antibacterial applications;
  • Responsive systems at the nanoscale for the delivery of antibacterials;
  • Nanoscale vehicles for targeted delivery of antibacterial compounds.

Prof. Dr. Krasimir Vasilev
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials
by Krasimir Vasilev
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(9), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13091530 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
In the 21st century, infections remain a major problem for society and are one of the leading causes of mortality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 3491 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Properties of Silver Nanoclusters with Carbon Support on Flexible Polymer
by Klaudia Hurtuková, Tereza Vašinová, Nikola Slepičková Kasálková, Dominik Fajstavr, Silvie Rimpelová, Vladimíra Svobodová Pavlíčková, Václav Švorčík and Petr Slepička
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152658 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Here, we aimed at the preparation of an antibacterial surface on a flexible polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The polydimethylsiloxane surface was sputtered with silver, deposited with carbon, heat treated and exposed to excimer laser, and the combinations of these steps were studied. Our main aim [...] Read more.
Here, we aimed at the preparation of an antibacterial surface on a flexible polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The polydimethylsiloxane surface was sputtered with silver, deposited with carbon, heat treated and exposed to excimer laser, and the combinations of these steps were studied. Our main aim was to find the combination of techniques applicable both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The surface morphology of the structures was determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in surface chemistry were conducted by application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The changes in surface wettability were characterized by surface free energy determination. The heat treatment was also applied to selected samples to study the influence of the process on layer stability and formation of PDMS-Ag or PDMS-C-Ag composite layer. Plasmon resonance effect was determined for as-sputtered and heat-treated Ag on polydimethylsiloxane. The heating of such structures may induce formation of a pattern with a surface plasmon resonance effect, which may also significantly affect the antibacterial activity. We have implemented sputtering of the carbon base layer in combination with excimer laser exposure of PDMS/C/Ag to modify its properties. We have confirmed that deposition of primary carbon layer on PDMS, followed by sputtering of silver combined with subsequent heat treatment and activation of such surface with excimer laser, led to the formation of a surface with strong antibacterial properties against two bacterial strains of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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15 pages, 7474 KiB  
Article
Bio-Inspired Nanostructured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: The Role of Two Alkaline Etchants and the Hydrothermal Processing Duration on Antibacterial Activity
by Richard Bright, Andrew Hayles, Jonathan Wood, Neethu Ninan, Dennis Palms, Rahul M. Visalakshan, Anouck Burzava, Toby Brown, Dan Barker and Krasimir Vasilev
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071140 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3023
Abstract
Inspired by observations that the natural topography observed on cicada and dragonfly wings may be lethal to bacteria, researchers have sought to reproduce these nanostructures on biomaterials with the goal of reducing implant-associated infections. Titanium and its alloys are widely employed biomaterials with [...] Read more.
Inspired by observations that the natural topography observed on cicada and dragonfly wings may be lethal to bacteria, researchers have sought to reproduce these nanostructures on biomaterials with the goal of reducing implant-associated infections. Titanium and its alloys are widely employed biomaterials with excellent properties but are susceptible to bacterial colonisation. Hydrothermal etching is a simple, cost-effective procedure which fabricates nanoscale protrusions of various dimensions upon titanium, depending on the etching parameters used. We investigated the role of etching time and the choice of cation (sodium and potassium) in the alkaline heat treatment on the topographical, physical, and bactericidal properties of the resulting modified titanium surfaces. Optimal etching times were 4 h for sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 5 h for potassium hydroxide (KOH). NaOH etching for 4 h produced dense, but somewhat ordered, surface nanofeatures with 75 nanospikes per µm2. In comparison, KOH etching for 5 h resulted sparser but nonetheless disordered surface morphology with only 8 spikes per µm2. The NaOH surface was more effective at eliminating Gram-negative pathogens, while the KOH surface was more effective against the Gram-positive strains. These findings may guide further research and development of bactericidal titanium surfaces which are optimised for the predominant pathogens associated with the intended application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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14 pages, 3313 KiB  
Article
Efficient Route for the Preparation of Composite Resin Incorporating Silver Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antibacterial Properties
by Drake Beery, Mohammad Abdul Mottaleb, Mohammed J. Meziani, James Campbell, Isabella Pires Miranda and Michael Bellamy
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030471 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3212
Abstract
An efficient and facile route for the immobilization of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) in anion exchange resin beads with different silver loading is proposed. In this method, BH4 ions were first introduced into chloride-form resin through an ion exchange process with [...] Read more.
An efficient and facile route for the immobilization of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) in anion exchange resin beads with different silver loading is proposed. In this method, BH4 ions were first introduced into chloride-form resin through an ion exchange process with Cl ions, followed by in-situ chemical reduction of Ag+ ions at the surface of the resin to form metallic Ag nanoparticles. Morphology and structure of the resulting Ag-resin nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The results confirmed the presence of smaller diameter Ag NPs incorporated into the resin beads having an average diameter on the order of 10 nm with a few Ag NP clusters of 20–100 nm. The nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed throughout the resin. There were no dramatic increases in average particle sizes even at very high Ag loadings. The resin retained its structure and stability, allowing higher stability of immobilized AgNPs than the colloidal ones. The Ag-loaded resins made with 50 mM AgNO3 were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model microbial contaminant in water. Results showed greater than 99% bacterial inhibition within 3 h of exposure. The resin form offers greater ease of handling, long-term storage at room temperature, reusability in repeated reactions, and reduces the risk of environmental contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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12 pages, 5620 KiB  
Article
Palygorskite-Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite for Enhanced Antibacterial Activities
by Aiping Hui, Fangfang Yang, Rui Yan, Yuru Kang and Aiqin Wang
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123230 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
A synergistic antibacterial strategy is effective in enhancing the antibacterial efficacy of a single antibacterial material. Plant essential oils (PEOs) are safe antibacterial agents. However, some of their characteristics such as intense aroma, volatility, and poor thermal stability limit their antibacterial activity and [...] Read more.
A synergistic antibacterial strategy is effective in enhancing the antibacterial efficacy of a single antibacterial material. Plant essential oils (PEOs) are safe antibacterial agents. However, some of their characteristics such as intense aroma, volatility, and poor thermal stability limit their antibacterial activity and applications. In this paper, five kinds of PEOs were incorporated onto ZnO/palygorskite (ZnO/PAL) nanoparticles by a simple adsorption process to form organic–inorganic nanocomposites (PEOs/ZnO/PAL) with excellent antibacterial properties. TEM and SEM analyses demonstrated that ZnO nanoparticles uniformly anchored onto the surface of rod-like PAL, and that the structure of ZnO/PAL maintained after the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles and PEOs. It was found that carvacrol/ZnO/palygorskite (CAR/ZnO/PAL) exhibited higher antibacterial activities than other PEOs/ZnO/PAL nanocomposites, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.5 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial efficiency of CAR/ZnO/PAL nanocomposites was superior to that of ZnO/PAL and pure CAR, demonstrating the synergistic effect that occurs in the combined system. PAL serving as a carrier for the combination of organic PEOs and ZnO nanoparticles is an effective strategy for enhanced, clay-based, organic–inorganic hybrid antibacterial nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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10 pages, 2769 KiB  
Article
Plasmonic Gold Nanoisland Film for Bacterial Theranostics
by Shih-Hua Tan, Sibidou Yougbaré, Hsuan-Ya Tao, Che-Chang Chang and Tsung-Rong Kuo
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113139 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Plasmonic nanomaterials have been intensively explored for applications in biomedical detection and therapy for human sustainability. Herein, plasmonic gold nanoisland (NI) film (AuNIF) was fabricated onto a glass substrate by a facile seed-mediated growth approach. The structure of the tortuous gold NIs of [...] Read more.
Plasmonic nanomaterials have been intensively explored for applications in biomedical detection and therapy for human sustainability. Herein, plasmonic gold nanoisland (NI) film (AuNIF) was fabricated onto a glass substrate by a facile seed-mediated growth approach. The structure of the tortuous gold NIs of the AuNIF was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Based on the ultraviolet-visible spectrum, the AuNIF revealed plasmonic absorption with maximum intensity at 624 nm. With the change to the surface topography created by the NIs, the capture efficiency of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by the AuNIF was significantly increased compared to that of the glass substrate. The AuNIF was applied as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to enhance the Raman signal of E. coli. Moreover, the plasmonic AuNIF exhibited a superior photothermal effect under irradiation with simulated AM1.5 sunlight. For photothermal therapy, the AuNIF also displayed outstanding efficiency in the photothermal killing of E. coli. Using a combination of SERS detection and photothermal therapy, the AuNIF could be a promising platform for bacterial theranostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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12 pages, 4800 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanorod-Decorated Metallic MoS2 Nanosheets for Synergistic Photothermal and Photodynamic Antibacterial Therapy
by Sibidou Yougbaré, Chinmaya Mutalik, Pei-Feng Chung, Dyah Ika Krisnawati, Fajar Rinawati, Hengky Irawan, Heny Kristanto and Tsung-Rong Kuo
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113064 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3995
Abstract
Light-responsive nanocomposites have become increasingly attractive in the biomedical field for antibacterial applications. Visible-light-activated metallic molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (1T-MoS2 NSs) and plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs) with absorption at a wavelength of 808 nm were synthesized. AuNR nanocomposites decorated onto 1T-MoS2 NSs [...] Read more.
Light-responsive nanocomposites have become increasingly attractive in the biomedical field for antibacterial applications. Visible-light-activated metallic molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (1T-MoS2 NSs) and plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs) with absorption at a wavelength of 808 nm were synthesized. AuNR nanocomposites decorated onto 1T-MoS2 NSs (MoS2@AuNRs) were successfully prepared by electrostatic adsorption for phototherapy applications. Based on the photothermal effect, the solution temperature of the MoS2@AuNR nanocomposites increased from 25 to 66.7 °C after 808 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation for 10 min. For the photodynamic effect, the MoS2@AuNR nanocomposites generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) under visible light irradiation. Photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy of MoS2@AuNRs were confirmed against E. coli by agar plate counts. Most importantly, the combination of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy from the MoS2@AuNR nanocomposites revealed higher antibacterial activity than photothermal or photodynamic therapy alone. The light-activated MoS2@AuNR nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable synergistic effect of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy, which provides an alternative approach to fight bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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15 pages, 4196 KiB  
Article
Bacitracin-Ag Nanoclusters as a Novel Antibacterial Agent Combats Shigella flexneri by Disrupting Cell Membrane and Inhibiting Biofilm Formation
by Lin Wang, Liu Liu and Xiaotong Zhou
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112928 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
A novel nanomaterial Bacitracin-Ag Nanoclusters (Bacitracin-AgNCs) was formed to achieve a better antibacterial effect on Shigella flexneri which poses a serious threat to human health. In the current study, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high [...] Read more.
A novel nanomaterial Bacitracin-Ag Nanoclusters (Bacitracin-AgNCs) was formed to achieve a better antibacterial effect on Shigella flexneri which poses a serious threat to human health. In the current study, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the properties of composited Bacitracin-AgNCs. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of Bacitracin-AgNCs against S. flexneri were explored, and the inhibition mechanism was discussed in terms of its aspects of cell membrane ravage, ATPase activity decline and biofilm inhibition. The results reveal that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Bacitracin-AgNCs against S. flexneri were 0.03 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL. Bacitracin-AgNCs may cause irreversible impairment to cells and greatly change the cell morphology. The cell membrane integrity of S. flexneri was destroyed with changes in the characteristics of membrane permeability and intracellular substances leakage. Moreover, our study further proved that Bacitracin-AgNCs significantly inhibited the formation of S. flexneri biofilms and reduced the number of viable bacteria in biofilm. These findings provide a potential method for the exploitation of organic composite nanomaterials as a novel antimicrobial agent and its application in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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20 pages, 13083 KiB  
Article
Systematic Evaluation of Antioxidant Efficiency and Antibacterial Mechanism of Bitter Gourd Extract Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles
by Kavya Moorthy, Kai-Chih Chang, Wen-Jui Wu, Jun-Yi Hsu, Po-Jen Yu and Cheng-Kang Chiang
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092278 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3441
Abstract
In this study, we accentuate the facile and green synthesis of ecologically viable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous (A-BGE) and ethanolic (E-BGE) dried bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) fruit extract as reducing and capping agents. Although AgNPs synthesized using BGEs have been reported earlier [...] Read more.
In this study, we accentuate the facile and green synthesis of ecologically viable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous (A-BGE) and ethanolic (E-BGE) dried bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) fruit extract as reducing and capping agents. Although AgNPs synthesized using BGEs have been reported earlier in fundamental antimicrobial studies, the possible antioxidant activity, antibacterial efficacy against superbugs, and a potential antimicrobial mechanism are still lacking. The characterization of as-prepared AgNPs was studied through UV-vis, TEM, Zeta-potential, FT-IR, XRD, and XPS analysis. The antioxidant ability of BG-AgNPs was extensively evaluated through DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed that A-BG-AgNPs possessed higher scavenging ability and superior reducing power due to the high phenolic content present in the BG extract. Furthermore, A-BG-AgNPs were highly stable in various physiological media and displayed excellent antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial strains (i.e., MIC value of 4 µg/mL). The generation of reactive oxygen species evidenced that the possible antimicrobial mechanism was induced by BG-AgNPs, resulting in bacterial cell damage. Within the minimal hemolysis, the BG-mediated AgNPs possessed synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial agents and open another avenue for the inhibition of the growth of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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16 pages, 4917 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Pyrenacantha grandiflora Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles
by Arinao Murei, Karen Pillay, Patrick Govender, Ntevheleni Thovhogi, Wilson M. Gitari and Amidou Samie
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061568 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2977
Abstract
In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using both the chemical and biological methods and conjugated with Pyrenacantha grandiflora extracts. These were then characterized and evaluated for antimicrobial activities against multi-drug resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonia, [...] Read more.
In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using both the chemical and biological methods and conjugated with Pyrenacantha grandiflora extracts. These were then characterized and evaluated for antimicrobial activities against multi-drug resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonia, and Escherichia coli. Nanoparticles were analyzed with UV-visible spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Silver nanoparticles, P. grandiflora extracts, and the conjugates were also analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As a result, quasi-sphere-shaped AgNPs with sizes ranging from 5 to 33 nm and spherically shaped AgNPs with sizes ranging from 3 to 25 nm were formed from chemical and biological synthesis, respectively. A well diffusion assay showed that the activity of silver nanoparticles was most improved with acetone extract against all tested bacteria with diameters in the range of 19–24 mm. The lowest MIC value of 0.0063 mg/mL against MRSA was observed when biologically synthesized AgNPs were conjugated with acetone and water extracts. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the lowest MIC value of 0.0063 mg/mL against E. coli when conjugated with acetone and methanol extracts. This study indicates that silver nanoparticles conjugated with P. gandiflora tubers extracts exhibit strong antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Therefore, biosynthesized conjugates could be utilized as antimicrobial agents for effective disease management due to the synergistic antibacterial activity that was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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22 pages, 7203 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Materials Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticles with Antimicrobial Properties
by Madalina Elena David, Rodica-Mariana Ion, Ramona Marina Grigorescu, Lorena Iancu, Alina Maria Holban, Adrian Ionut Nicoara, Elvira Alexandrescu, Raluca Somoghi, Mihaela Ganciarov, Gabriel Vasilievici and Anca Irina Gheboianu
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061415 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4398
Abstract
In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were decorated with different types of nanoparticles (NPs) in order to obtain hybrid materials with improved antimicrobial activity. Structural and morphological analysis, such as Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, environmental [...] Read more.
In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were decorated with different types of nanoparticles (NPs) in order to obtain hybrid materials with improved antimicrobial activity. Structural and morphological analysis, such as Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller technique were used in order to investigate the decoration of the nanotubes with NPs. Analysis of the decorated nanotubes showed a narrow size distribution of NPs, 7–13 nm for the nanotubes decorated with zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, 15–33 nm for the nanotubes decorated with silver (Ag) NPs and 20–35 nm for the nanotubes decorated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) NPs, respectively. The dispersion in water of the obtained nanomaterials was improved for all the decorated MWCNTs, as revealed by the relative absorbance variation in time of the water-dispersed nanomaterials. The obtained nanomaterials showed a good antimicrobial activity; however, the presence of the NPs on the surface of MWCNTs improved the nanocomposites’ activity. The presence of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial properties of the material, in clinically relevant microbial strains. Our data proves that such composite nanomaterials are efficient antimicrobial agents, suitable for the therapy of severe infection and biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials)
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