Special Issue "Nanocomposites: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology (Nanoscale Phenomena) in Advanced Composites"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Muralidharan Paramsothy
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Consultant, NanoWorld Innovations (NWI), 1 Jalan Mawar Singapore 368931
Interests: nanomaterials & nanotechnology; nanoscience for renewable energy; synthesis and applications of nanomaterials; nanoparticle- and/or nanofiber-based materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanocomposites can be viewed as abundant interface nanoscale systems having the ability to manipulate length scales that are fundamentally important to many physical properties. This can sometimes impart multiple functions, which has led to a rapidly expanding scope and arena of application for these materials. It is known that the function of nanoparticles in a matrix is dependent on nanoparticle–matrix interactions, amongst other factors. This is with regard to any material property of the nanocomposites, be it related to crystallographic and/or electronic structure. This Special Issue will highlight the nanoscale science and technology in the structure, processing, property, characterization, and modeling aspects of advanced composite materials, including nanoparticle- and/or nanofiber-based materials. Contributions are solicited in, but not limited to advanced composites for mechanical, thermal, energetic/catalytic, optical, magnetic, electronic, and biological applications. Submissions that focus on advanced composites for multi-functional or green-energy applications are especially welcome.

Dr. Muralidharan Paramsothy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticle
  • Nanocomposite
  • Mechanical
  • Thermal
  • Energetic
  • Catalytic
  • Optical
  • Magnetic
  • Electronic
  • Biological
  • Multi-functional
  • Green energy

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of BNNSs Dielectrophoretic Motion under a Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030682 - 09 Mar 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Using a nanosecond pulsed electric field to induce orientation and arrangement of insulating flake particles is a novel efficient strategy, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the dielectrophoretic motion of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) in ultrapure water under a nanosecond [...] Read more.
Using a nanosecond pulsed electric field to induce orientation and arrangement of insulating flake particles is a novel efficient strategy, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the dielectrophoretic motion of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) in ultrapure water under a nanosecond pulsed electric field is simulated for the first time. First, the simulation theory is proposed. When the relaxation polarization time of the dielectric is much shorter than the pulse voltage width, the pulse voltage high level can be considered a short-term DC voltage. On this basis, the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Euler (ALE) method is used in the model, considering the mutual ultrapure water–BNNS particles-nanosecond pulsed electric field dielectrophoretic interaction, to study the influence of different BNNSs self-angle α and relative angle β on local orientation and global arrangement. The particles are moved by the dielectrophoretic force during the pulse voltage high level and move with the ultrapure water flow at the zero level, without their movement direction changing during this period, so the orientation angle and distance changes show step-like and wave-like curves, respectively. The model explains the basic mechanism of dielectrophoretic motion of BNNSs under a pulsed electric field and summarizes the motion law of BNNSs, providing a reference for subsequent research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Iron on the Fe–Co–Ni Ternary Nanocomposites Structural and Magnetic Features Obtained via Chemical Precipitation Followed by Reduction Process for Various Magnetically Coupled Devices Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020341 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
This paper presents the synthesis of Fe–Co–Ni nanocomposites by chemical precipitation, followed by a reduction process. It was found that the influence of the chemical composition and reduction temperature greatly alters the phase formation, its structures, particle size distribution, and magnetic properties of [...] Read more.
This paper presents the synthesis of Fe–Co–Ni nanocomposites by chemical precipitation, followed by a reduction process. It was found that the influence of the chemical composition and reduction temperature greatly alters the phase formation, its structures, particle size distribution, and magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni nanocomposites. The initial hydroxides of Fe–Co–Ni combinations were prepared by the co-precipitation method from nitrate precursors and precipitated using alkali. The reduction process was carried out by hydrogen in the temperature range of 300–500 °C under isothermal conditions. The nanocomposites had metallic and intermetallic phases with different lattice parameter values due to the increase in Fe content. In this paper, we showed that the values of the magnetic parameters of nanocomposites can be controlled in the ranges of MS = 7.6–192.5 Am2/kg, Mr = 0.4–39.7 Am2/kg, Mr/Ms = 0.02–0.32, and HcM = 4.72–60.68 kA/m by regulating the composition and reduction temperature of the Fe–Co–Ni composites. Due to the reduction process, drastic variations in the magnetic features result from the intermetallic and metallic face formation. The variation in magnetic characteristics is guided by the reduction degree, particle size growth, and crystallinity enhancement. Moreover, the reduction of the surface spins fraction of the nanocomposites under their growth induced an increase in the saturation magnetization. This is the first report where the influence of Fe content on the Fe–Co–Ni ternary system phase content and magnetic properties was evaluated. The Fe–Co–Ni ternary nanocomposites obtained by co-precipitation, followed by the hydrogen reduction led to the formation of better magnetic materials for various magnetically coupled device applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trace Amounts of Co3O4 Nano-Particles Modified TiO2 Nanorod Arrays for Boosted Photoelectrocatalytic Removal of Organic Pollutants in Water
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010214 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Trace amounts of Co3O4 modified TiO2 nanorod arrays were successfully fabricated through the photochemical deposition method without adding any nocuous reagents. The Co3O4/TiO2 nanorod arrays fabricated in acid solution had the highest photo-electrochemical activity. [...] Read more.
Trace amounts of Co3O4 modified TiO2 nanorod arrays were successfully fabricated through the photochemical deposition method without adding any nocuous reagents. The Co3O4/TiO2 nanorod arrays fabricated in acid solution had the highest photo-electrochemical activity. We elaborated on the mechanism of Co3O4-TiO2 fabricated in different pH value solutions. The Co3O4-TiO2 had a more remarkable photo-electrochemical performance than the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays owing to the heterojunction between Co3O4 and TiO2. The degradation of methylene blue and hydroquinone was selected as the model reactions to evaluate the photo-electrochemical performance of Co3O4-TiO2 nanorod arrays. The Co3O4/TiO2 nanorod arrays had great potential in waste water treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Styrene-Based Elastomer Composites with Functionalized Graphene Oxide and Silica Nanofiber Fillers: Mechanical and Thermal Conductivity Properties
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091682 - 27 Aug 2020
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The mechanical and thermal conductivity properties of two composite elastomers were studied. Styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) filled with functionalized graphene oxide (GO) and silica nanofibers, and styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) block copolymers filled with graphene oxide. For the SBR composites, GO fillers with two different surface [...] Read more.
The mechanical and thermal conductivity properties of two composite elastomers were studied. Styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) filled with functionalized graphene oxide (GO) and silica nanofibers, and styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) block copolymers filled with graphene oxide. For the SBR composites, GO fillers with two different surface functionalities were synthesized (cysteamine and dodecylamine) and dispersed in the SBR using mechanical and liquid mixing techniques. The hydrophilic cysteamine-based GO fillers were dispersed in the SBR by mechanical mixing, whereas the hydrophobic dodecylamine-based GO fillers were dispersed in the SBR by liquid mixing. Silica nanofibers (SnFs) were fabricated by electrospinning a sol–gel precursor solution. The surface chemistry of the functionalized fillers was studied in detail. The properties of the composites and the synergistic improvements between the GO and SnFs are presented. For the SBS composites, GO fillers were dispersed in the SBS elastomer at several weight percent loadings using liquid mixing. Characterization of the filler material and the composite elastomers was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, nanoindentation, thermal conductivity and abrasion testing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Finishing and Polishing Sequences on The Surface Roughness of Three Different Nanocomposites and Composite/Enamel and Composite/Cementum Interfaces
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071339 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of final surface treatment and dental composite type on the roughness of the composite surface, composite/enamel interface, and composite/cementum interface, as well as on the polishing time. Class V cavities prepared in extracted [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of final surface treatment and dental composite type on the roughness of the composite surface, composite/enamel interface, and composite/cementum interface, as well as on the polishing time. Class V cavities prepared in extracted teeth (n = 126) were restored using one of the three nanohybrid composites with different filler sizes. The specimens were randomly assigned to three different finishing and polishing sequences. The roughness (Ra) of the investigated surfaces was measured using the contact profilometer. The time required to achieve visible gloss was documented. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test (p < 0.05). There was no significant influence of the composite type on the restoration surface roughness (p = 0.088), while the polishing method had a significant impact (p < 0.001). The Ra of the composites ranged between 0.08 µm and 0.29 µm, with the lowest values (0.09 µm ± 0.05 µm) found in the aluminum oxide disc group (p < 0.001). The time to achieve a visible composite gloss was influenced by the polishing method, composite type, and interactions between these factors (p < 0.001). The interface roughness was significantly greater than that of the composite surface (p < 0.001), and depended on the composite type and polishing system employed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flux-Free Diffusion Joining of SiCp/6063 Al Matrix Composites Using Liquid Gallium with Nano-Copper Particles in Atmosphere Environment
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030437 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
A new method for flux-free diffusion joining of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with SiC particles (SiCp/Al MMCs) in atmosphere environment has been developed. Liquid gallium and nano-copper particles were employed as filler metal under joining temperatures ranging between 400 °C to [...] Read more.
A new method for flux-free diffusion joining of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with SiC particles (SiCp/Al MMCs) in atmosphere environment has been developed. Liquid gallium and nano-copper particles were employed as filler metal under joining temperatures ranging between 400 °C to 480 °C, with a holding time of 2 h and pressure of 3 MPa. The results showed that 65 vol.% SiCp/6063 Al MMCs were successfully joined together. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of Ga2O3 at the fracture. Meanwhile, neither copper oxide nor aluminum oxide was detected. The formation of Ga2O3 can protect nano-copper particles and SiCp/6063 Al MMCs from oxidation. The width of weld seam tended to be narrowed from 40 μm to 14 μm gradually with increasing temperature from 400 °C to 480 °C. The maximum shear strength level of 41.2 MPa was achieved with a bonding temperature of 450 °C. The change of the strength was due to the adequate elements’ mutual diffusion and solution, as well as the change of the quantity and morphology of intermetallic compounds in the weld seam, such as Al2Cu and Cu3Ga. When the diffusion joining temperature reached 440 °C or above, the leak rate of the specimen remained under 10−10 Pa·m3/s. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Characterization and Digestibility of Curcumin Loaded Octenyl Succinic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081073 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Curcumin displays anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties but its water insolubility limits the wholesome utility. In this study, curcumin has been encapsulated in an amphiphilic biopolymer to enhance its water solubility. This was accomplished through self-assembly of octenyl succinic anhydride–short glucan chains (OSA–SGC) [...] Read more.
Curcumin displays anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties but its water insolubility limits the wholesome utility. In this study, curcumin has been encapsulated in an amphiphilic biopolymer to enhance its water solubility. This was accomplished through self-assembly of octenyl succinic anhydride–short glucan chains (OSA–SGC) and curcumin. The nanoparticles were prepared with the degree of substitution (DS) of 0.112, 0.286 and 0.342 of OSA. Thus prepared nanoparticles were in the range of 150–200 nm and display high encapsulation efficiency and high loading capacity of curcumin. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the curcumin loading in the OSA–SGC nanoparticles. The complexes possessed a V-type starch structure. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed the thermal stability of encapsulated curcumin. The OSA–SGC nanoparticles greatly improved the curcumin release and dissolution, and in-turn promoted the sustained release. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances and Future Prospects in Spark Plasma Sintered Alumina Hybrid Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111607 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Although ceramics have many advantages when compared to metals in specific applications, they could be more widely applied if their low properties (fracture toughness, strength, and electrical and thermal conductivities) are improved. Reinforcing ceramics by two nano-phases that have different morphologies and/or properties, [...] Read more.
Although ceramics have many advantages when compared to metals in specific applications, they could be more widely applied if their low properties (fracture toughness, strength, and electrical and thermal conductivities) are improved. Reinforcing ceramics by two nano-phases that have different morphologies and/or properties, called the hybrid microstructure design, has been implemented to develop hybrid ceramic nanocomposites with tailored nanostructures, improved mechanical properties, and enhanced functionalities. The use of the novel spark plasma sintering (SPS) process allowed for the sintering of hybrid ceramic nanocomposite materials to maintain high relative density while also preserving the small grain size of the matrix. As a result, hybrid nanocomposite materials that have better mechanical and functional properties than those of either conventional composites or nanocomposites were produced. The development of hybrid ceramic nanocomposites is in its early stage and it is expected to continue attracting the interest of the scientific community. In the present paper, the progress made in the development of alumina hybrid nanocomposites, using spark plasma sintering, and their properties are reviewed. In addition, the current challenges and potential applications are highlighted. Finally, future prospects for developing alumina hybrid nanocomposites that have better performance are set. Full article
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