Special Issue "Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Chih-Chia Huang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Photonics, Center of Applied Nanomedicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Interests: nanotheranostics, biophotonics, surface enhanced Raman scattering, photothermal and photodynamic therapy, nanomedicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Integration of optical signal amplification and phototherapy (i.e., photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy) using nanosystems, nanotechnologies, and nanoparticles has unveiled exciting innovations in both non-invasive disease detection and smart therapeutic approaches. In recent disease detection, various strategies have shown cell surface-specific recognition design with microenvironment-responsive biomolecules, which can be activated at long wavelengths (i.e., near infrared (NIR)-I and NIR-II regions). As for the diagnosis approach, separation technologies combined with optical signals (e.g., microfluidic devices with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)) were applied to increase the sensitivity of small biomaterials detection. In the therapeutic area, much research has demonstrated the potential of optical treatment at a tissue level without severe thermal side effects. Therefore, the main focus of this Special Issue is to cover the recent advances in newly developed nanobiophotonics, nanophototherapy, novel photomedicine, and state-of-the-art bioimaging platforms toward their potential applications in cancer targeting, neurological disorder treatment, pathogenic microorganisms sensing, wound healing, tissue engineering, cardiovascular diseases, and deep-tissue imaging. Furthermore, the content will aim to target “translational innovators” like chemists, biologists, and materials scientists, that aim to collaborate with clinicians and engineers to create new and smart NIR-nanotechnology/nanobiotechnology/optical nanomaterials to tackle crucial nanobiomedical problems.

Prof. Dr. Chih-Chia Huang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanobiophotonics
  • photomedicine
  • photothermal therapy
  • photodynamic therapy
  • theranostics
  • nanocarrier
  • biosensor
  • photonics nanostructures
  • nanoparticle-combined biophotonics
  • bioimaging
  • cancer treatment
  • neurological disorders
  • pathogenic microorganisms
  • wound healing
  • cardiovascular diseases

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
2D CTAB-MoSe2 Nanosheets and 0D MoSe2 Quantum Dots: Facile Top-Down Preparations and Their Peroxidase-Like Catalytic Activity for Colorimetric Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102045 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
We report the facile and economic preparation of two-dimensional (2D) and 0D MoSe2 nanostructures based on systematic and non-toxic top-down strategies. We demonstrate the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of these MoSe2 nanostructures. The catalytic processes begin with facilitated decomposition of H2 [...] Read more.
We report the facile and economic preparation of two-dimensional (2D) and 0D MoSe2 nanostructures based on systematic and non-toxic top-down strategies. We demonstrate the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of these MoSe2 nanostructures. The catalytic processes begin with facilitated decomposition of H2O2 by using MoSe2 nanostructures as peroxidase mimetics. In turn, a large amount of generated radicals oxidizes 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce a visible color reaction. The enzymatic kinetics of our MoSe2 nanostructures complies with typical Michaelis–Menten theory. Catalytic kinetics study reveals a ping–pong mechanism. Moreover, the primary radical responsible for the oxidation of TMB was identified to be Ȯ2 by active species-trapping experiments. Based on the peroxidase mimicking property, we developed a new colorimetric method for H2O2 detection by using 2D and 0D MoSe2 nanostructures. It is shown that the colorimetric sensing capability of our MoSe2 catalysts is comparable to other 2D materials-based colorimetric platforms. For instance, the linear range of H2O2 detection is between 10 and 250 μM by using 2D functionalized MoSe2 nanosheets as an artificial enzyme. Our work develops a systematic approach to use 2D materials to construct novel enzyme-free mimetic for a visual assay of H2O2, which has promising prospects in medical diagnosis and food security monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Efficiency of Titania–Lanthanide Hybrid Upconversion Nanomaterials by Shortening the Donor–Acceptor Distance
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102035 - 15 Oct 2020
Abstract
Several robust titania (TiO2) coated core/multishell trivalent lanthanide (Ln) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) hybrid architecture designs have been reported for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer, utilizing the near-infrared (NIR) excited energy down-shifting and up-conversion chain of Nd3+793-808 [...] Read more.
Several robust titania (TiO2) coated core/multishell trivalent lanthanide (Ln) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) hybrid architecture designs have been reported for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer, utilizing the near-infrared (NIR) excited energy down-shifting and up-conversion chain of Nd3+793-808 nm) → Yb3+980 nm) → Tm3+475 nm) → TiO2 to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for deep tissue-penetrating oxidative cytotoxicity, e.g., NaLnF4:Yb,Tm (Ln = Y, Gd). Herein, we demonstrate that by doping the Tm3+ emitter ions in the outer shell and the Nd3+ sensitizer ions in the core, the newly designed NaYF4:Nd,[email protected]@Yb,[email protected]2 hybrid UCNPs exert more ROS production than the reference NaYF4:Yb,[email protected]@Nd,[email protected] TiO2 with the Tm3+ ions in the core and the Nd3+ ions in the outer shell, upon 793 nm laser irradiation, primarily due to the shortening of the Tm3+-TiO2 distance of the former with greater Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. After coating with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH)/polyethylene glycol folate (PEG-FA), the resulting NaYF4:Nd,[email protected]@Yb,[email protected]2-PAH-PEG-FA hybrid nanocomposites could be internalized in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, which also show low dark cytotoxicity and effective photocytotoxicity upon 793 nm excitation. These nanocomposites could be further optimized and are potentially good candidates as nanotheranostics, as well as for other light-conversion applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrawide Bandgap and High Sensitivity of a Plasmonic Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide Filter with Cavity and Baffles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102030 - 15 Oct 2020
Abstract
A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide filter consisting of one rectangular cavity and three silver baffles is numerically investigated using the finite element method and theoretically described by the cavity resonance mode theory. The proposed structure shows a simple shape with a small number of [...] Read more.
A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide filter consisting of one rectangular cavity and three silver baffles is numerically investigated using the finite element method and theoretically described by the cavity resonance mode theory. The proposed structure shows a simple shape with a small number of structural parameters that can function as a plasmonic sensor with a filter property, high sensitivity and figure of merit, and wide bandgap. Simulation results demonstrate that a cavity with three silver baffles could significantly affect the resonance condition and remarkably enhance the sensor performance compared to its counterpart without baffles. The calculated sensitivity (S) and figure of merit (FOM) in the first mode can reach 3300.00 nm/RIU and 170.00 RIU−1. Besides, S and FOM values can simultaneously get above 2000.00 nm/RIU and 110.00 RIU−1 in the first and second modes by varying a broad range of the structural parameters, which are not attainable in the reported literature. The proposed structure can realize multiple modes operating in a wide wavelength range, which may have potential applications in the on-chip plasmonic sensor, filter, and other optical integrated circuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Pot Synthesis of Thiol-Modified Liquid Crystals Conjugated Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091755 - 06 Sep 2020
Abstract
Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and liquid crystals (LCs) have shown great potential in nanobiotechnology applications due to their unique optical and structural properties. Herein, the hardcore of the 4-cyano biphenyl group for commonly used LCs of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was utilized to synthesize 4′-(2-mercaptoethyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4-carbonitrile (TAT-12) [...] Read more.
Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and liquid crystals (LCs) have shown great potential in nanobiotechnology applications due to their unique optical and structural properties. Herein, the hardcore of the 4-cyano biphenyl group for commonly used LCs of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was utilized to synthesize 4′-(2-mercaptoethyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4-carbonitrile (TAT-12) based on Suzuki coupling and Appel reaction. The structural and optical properties of thiol-modified TAT-12 LCs were demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By one-pot synthesis, thiol-modified TAT-12 LCs were used as the ligands to prepare fluorescent gold nanoclusters ([email protected]) according to the Au-S bond between AuNCs and TAT-12. The spectra of UV-vis absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of [email protected] indicated that the core of gold of [email protected] exhibited high gold oxidation states. The fluorescence of [email protected] was observed with a maximum intensity at ~352 nm coming from TAT-12 on [email protected] and the fluorescence quantum yield of [email protected] was calculated to be 10.1%. Furthermore, the fluorescence with a maximum intensity at ~448 nm was attributed to a ligand–metal charge transfer between the ligands of TAT-12 LCs and the core of AuNCs. The image of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further demonstrated an approximately spherical shape of [email protected] with an average size of 2.3 nm. A combination of UV-vis absorption spectra, XPS spectra, fluorescence spectra and TEM image, fluorescent [email protected] were successfully synthesized via one-pot synthesis. Our work provides a practical approach to the synthesis of LCs conjugated AuNCs for future applications in nanobiotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Sensitive and Tunable Plasmonic Sensor Based on a Nanoring Resonator with Silver Nanorods
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071399 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
We numerically and theoretically investigate a highly sensitive and tunable plasmonic refractive index sensor that is composed of a metal-insulator-metal waveguide with a side-coupled nanoring, containing silver nanorods using the finite element method. Results reveal that the presence of silver nanorods in the [...] Read more.
We numerically and theoretically investigate a highly sensitive and tunable plasmonic refractive index sensor that is composed of a metal-insulator-metal waveguide with a side-coupled nanoring, containing silver nanorods using the finite element method. Results reveal that the presence of silver nanorods in the nanoring has a significant impact on sensitivity and tunability performance. It gives a flexible way to tune the system response in the proposed structure. Our designed sensor has a sensitivity of 2080 nm/RIU (RIU is the refractive index unit) along with a figure of merit and a quality factor of 29.92 and 29.67, respectively. The adequate refractive index sensitivity can increase by adding the silver nanorods in a nanoring, which can induce new surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) modes that cannot be found by a regular nanoring. For a practical application, a valid introduction of silver nanorods in the nanoring can dramatically reduce the dimension of the proposed structure without sacrificing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Folic Acid-Conjugated and Methylene Blue-Adsorbed [email protected] Nanoparticles for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy of Bladder Cancer Cells
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071351 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for malignancy. However, the low molecular solubility of photosensitizers (PSs) with a low accumulation at borderline malignant potential lesions results in the tardy and ineffective management of recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Herein, we used tannic acid (TNA), [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for malignancy. However, the low molecular solubility of photosensitizers (PSs) with a low accumulation at borderline malignant potential lesions results in the tardy and ineffective management of recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Herein, we used tannic acid (TNA), a green precursor, to reduce HAuCl4 in order to generate [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles. The photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) was subsequently adsorbed onto the surface of the [email protected] nanoparticles, leading to the incorporation of a PS within the organic shell of the Au nanoparticle nanosupport, denoted as [email protected]@MB nanoparticles (NPs). By modifying the surface of the [email protected]@MB NPs with the ligand folate acid (FA) using NH2-PEG-NH2 as a linker, we demonstrated that the targeted delivery strategy achieved a high accumulation of PSs in cancer cells. The cell viability of T24 cells decreased to 87.1%, 57.1%, and 26.6% upon treatment with 10 ppm[Au] [email protected]/MB NPs after 45 min, 2 h, and 4 h of incubation, respectively. We also applied the same targeted PDT treatment to normal urothelial SV-HUC-1 cells and observed minor phototoxicity, indicating that this safe photomedicine shows promise for applications aiming to achieve the local depletion of cancer sites without side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Reusable TiN Substrate for Surface Plasmon Resonance Heterodyne Phase Interrogation Sensor
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071325 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A TiN-based substrate with high reusability presented high-sensitivity refractive index measurements in a home-built surface plasmon resonance (SPR) heterodyne phase interrogation system. TiN layers with and without additional inclined-deposited TiN (i-TiN) layers on glass substrates reached high bulk charge carrier densities of 1.28 [...] Read more.
A TiN-based substrate with high reusability presented high-sensitivity refractive index measurements in a home-built surface plasmon resonance (SPR) heterodyne phase interrogation system. TiN layers with and without additional inclined-deposited TiN (i-TiN) layers on glass substrates reached high bulk charge carrier densities of 1.28 × 1022 and 1.91 × 1022 cm−3, respectively. The additional 1.4 nm i-TiN layer of the nanorod array presented a detection limit of 6.1 × 10−7 RIU and was higher than that of the 46 nm TiN layer at 1.2 × 10−6 RIU when measuring the refractive index of a glucose solution. Furthermore, the long-term durability of the TiN-based substrate demonstrated by multiple processing experiments presented a high potential for various practical sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Perfect Dual-Band Absorber Based on Plasmonic Effect with the Cross-Hair/Nanorod Combination
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030493 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Plasmonic effect using a cross-hair can convey strongly localized surface plasmon modes among the separated composite nanostructures. Compared to its counterpart without the cross-hair, this characteristic has the remarkable merit of enhancing absorptance at resonance and can make the structure carry out a [...] Read more.
Plasmonic effect using a cross-hair can convey strongly localized surface plasmon modes among the separated composite nanostructures. Compared to its counterpart without the cross-hair, this characteristic has the remarkable merit of enhancing absorptance at resonance and can make the structure carry out a dual-band plasmonic perfect absorber (PPA). In this paper, we propose and design a novel dual-band PPA with a gathering of four metal-shell nanorods using a cross-hair operating at visible and near-infrared regions. Two absorptance peaks at 1050 nm and 750 nm with maximal absorptance of 99.59% and 99.89% for modes 1 and 2, respectively, are detected. High sensitivity of 1200 nm refractive unit (1/RIU), figure of merit of 26.67 and Q factor of 23.33 are acquired, which are very remarkable compared with the other PPAs. In addition, the absorptance in mode 1 is about nine times compared to its counterpart without the cross-hair. The proposed structure gives a novel inspiration for the design of a tunable dual-band PPA, which can be exploited for plasmonic sensor and other nanophotonic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Properties of Electrically Active Gold Nanoisland Films Enabled with Interfaced Liquid Crystals
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020290 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A system comprising a gold nanoisland film (Au NIF) covered with a liquid crystal (LC) material is introduced. By applying a voltage across the LC bulk, we demonstrate that changes in the refractive-index and orientation significantly modified the hybrid plasmonic–photonic resonances of the [...] Read more.
A system comprising a gold nanoisland film (Au NIF) covered with a liquid crystal (LC) material is introduced. By applying a voltage across the LC bulk, we demonstrate that changes in the refractive-index and orientation significantly modified the hybrid plasmonic–photonic resonances of the Au NIF. The hybrid structure enabled active control of the spectrum of the resonance wavelength of the metallic nanoisland by means of an externally applied electric field. Our modeling supports the observed results in LC/Au NIF. In a combination of the nanostructured surface with birefringent LCs, nonpolarized wavelength tunability of ~15 nm and absorbance tunability of ~0.024 were achieved in the visible wavelength, opening the door to optical devices and nanoscale sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Characterization of a Metallic–Dielectric Nanorod Array by Nanosphere Lithography for Plasmonic Sensing Application
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121691 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
In this paper, a periodic metallic–dielectric nanorod array which consists of Si nanorods coated with 30 nm Ag thin film set in a hexagonal configuration is fabricated and characterized. The fabrication procedure is performed by using nanosphere lithography with reactive ion etching, followed [...] Read more.
In this paper, a periodic metallic–dielectric nanorod array which consists of Si nanorods coated with 30 nm Ag thin film set in a hexagonal configuration is fabricated and characterized. The fabrication procedure is performed by using nanosphere lithography with reactive ion etching, followed by Ag thin-film deposition. The mechanism of the surface and gap plasmon modes supported by the fabricated structure is numerically demonstrated by the three-dimensional finite element method. The measured and simulated absorptance spectra are observed to have a same trend and a qualitative fit. Our fabricated plasmonic sensor shows an average sensitivity of 340.0 nm/RIU when applied to a refractive index sensor ranging from 1.0 to 1.6. The proposed substrates provide a practical plasmonic nanorod-based sensing platform, and the fabrication methods used are technically effective and low-cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
A Diamond Temperature Sensor Based on the Energy Level Shift of Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111576 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond has been widely investigated in quantum information and quantum biosensors due to its excellent photon emission stability and long spin coherence time. However, the temperature dependence of the energy level of NV [...] Read more.
The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond has been widely investigated in quantum information and quantum biosensors due to its excellent photon emission stability and long spin coherence time. However, the temperature dependence of the energy level of NV color centers in diamond is different from other semiconductors with the same diamond cubic structure for the high Debye temperature and very small thermal expansion coefficient of diamond. In this work, a diamond sensor for temperature measurement with high precision was fabricated based on the investigation of the energy level shifts of NV centers by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that the intensity and linewidth of the zero-phonon line of NV centers highly depend on the environmental temperature, and the energy level shifts of NV centers in diamond follow the modified Varshni model very well, a model which is better than the traditional version. Accordingly, the NV color center shows the ability in temperature measurement with a high accuracy of up to 98%. The high dependence of NV centers on environmental temperature shows the possibility of temperature monitoring of NV center-based quantum sensors in biosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultra-High Refractive Index Sensing Structure Based on a Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide-Coupled T-Shape Cavity with Metal Nanorod Defects
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101433 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
An ultra-high plasmonic refractive index sensing structure composed of a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguide coupled to a T-shape cavity and several metal nanorod defects is proposed and investigated by using finite element method. The designed plasmonic MIM waveguide can constitute a cavity resonance zone [...] Read more.
An ultra-high plasmonic refractive index sensing structure composed of a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguide coupled to a T-shape cavity and several metal nanorod defects is proposed and investigated by using finite element method. The designed plasmonic MIM waveguide can constitute a cavity resonance zone and the metal nanorod defects can effectively trap the light in the T-shape cavity. The results reveal that both the size of defects in wider rectangular cavity and the length of narrower rectangular cavity are primary factors increasing the sensitivity performance. The sensitivity can achieve as high as 8280 nm/RIU (RIU denotes the refractive index unit), which is the highest sensitivity reported in plasmonic MIM waveguide-based sensors to our knowledge. In addition, the proposed structure can also serve as a temperature sensor with temperature sensitivity as high as 3.30 nm/°C. The designed structure with simplicity and ease of fabrication can be applied in sensitivity nanometer scale refractive index sensor and may potentially be used in optical on-chip nanosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials for the Photothermal Killing of Bacteria
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061123 - 06 Jun 2020
Abstract
An upsurge in the multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pestilence is a global cause for concern in terms of human health. Lately, nanomaterials with photothermal effects have assisted in the efficient killing of MDR bacteria, attributable to their uncommon plasmonic, photocatalytic, and structural properties. Examinations [...] Read more.
An upsurge in the multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pestilence is a global cause for concern in terms of human health. Lately, nanomaterials with photothermal effects have assisted in the efficient killing of MDR bacteria, attributable to their uncommon plasmonic, photocatalytic, and structural properties. Examinations of substantial amounts of photothermally enabled nanomaterials have shown bactericidal effects in an optimized time under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. In this review, we have compiled recent advances in photothermally enabled nanomaterials for antibacterial activities and their mechanisms. Photothermally enabled nanomaterials are classified into three groups, including metal-, carbon-, and polymer-based nanomaterials. Based on substantial accomplishments with photothermally enabled nanomaterials, we have inferred current trends and their prospective clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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Open AccessReview
Light-Activated Heterostructured Nanomaterials for Antibacterial Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040643 - 30 Mar 2020
Abstract
An outbreak of a bacterial contagion is a critical threat for human health worldwide. Recently, light-activated heterostructured nanomaterials (LAHNs) have shown potential as antibacterial agents, owing to their unique structural and optical properties. Many investigations have revealed that heterostructured nanomaterials are potential antibacterial [...] Read more.
An outbreak of a bacterial contagion is a critical threat for human health worldwide. Recently, light-activated heterostructured nanomaterials (LAHNs) have shown potential as antibacterial agents, owing to their unique structural and optical properties. Many investigations have revealed that heterostructured nanomaterials are potential antibacterial agents under light irradiation. In this review, we summarize recent developments of light-activated antibacterial agents using heterostructured nanomaterials and specifically categorized those agents based on their various light harvesters. The detailed antibacterial mechanisms are also addressed. With the achievements of LAHNs as antibacterial agents, we further discuss the challenges and opportunities for their future clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiophotonics, Photomedicine, and Imaging)
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