Green Chemistry

Editors


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Collection Editor
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: organic chemistry; green synthetic organic chemistry; synthesis of heterocyclic compounds; natural products; NMR techniques; synthesis of new compounds with biocidal and antioxidant activities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Green Chemistry has attracted the interest of the scientific community, mainly due to its environmental effect. The development of efficient synthetic methodologies is no longer just related with good yields, but is more and more related with greener procedures. In this regard, the use of efficient catalysts and/or water as a medium has been implemented in recent years. Biotransformations, where enzymes are used, can be highlighted, but recent energy sources, such as ohmic heating, are also important examples. However, green methodologies are not just confined to these examples; their principles are vast and all important.

This Collection of Methods and Protocols aims to compile both original articles and reviews, covering the most recent advances on Green Chemistry.

As the Collection Editors of this Collection of Methods and Protocols, we invite you to provide original research contributions, as well as review articles, related to the most recent developments and/or achievemets in green chemistry.

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this Collection.

Prof. Dr. Artur M. S. Silva
Dr. Diana C. G. A. Pinto
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sustainable chemistry
  • Biotransformations
  • Microwave-assisted organic synthesis
  • Ohmic heating-assisted organic synthesis
  • Organocatalysis
  • Chemistry with economic and environmental benefits
  • Solvent-free extractions
  • Solvent-free chemical transformations

Published Papers (5 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2020, 2019

11 pages, 2915 KiB  
Communication
Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Rapid and Sensitive Identification of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
by Wenchao Zhu, Mubasher Hussain, Jing Gao, Runqian Mao and Xincheng An
Methods Protoc. 2023, 6(5), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps6050081 - 5 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
The black soldier fly (BSF) is well known for its ability to biologically convert organic waste into insect biomass, including protein and oil, which can be utilised as animal feed. Since raw BSF products, such as BSF powder, are difficult to differentiate from [...] Read more.
The black soldier fly (BSF) is well known for its ability to biologically convert organic waste into insect biomass, including protein and oil, which can be utilised as animal feed. Since raw BSF products, such as BSF powder, are difficult to differentiate from other biological raw materials, therefore new analytical approaches are required. In this study, we have developed a new and fast method based on loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) reaction that can diagnose black soldier fly larvae and BSF byproducts with high accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. Species-specific primers for BSF were designed based on targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) gene. The assay was able to detect as low as 820 fg/L of BSF DNA in 60 min at 65 °C, which was a hundredfold higher than the detection limit of classical polymerase chain reaction and did not show cross-reactivity. In conclusion, the LAMP assay demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity to detect BSF and BSF byproducts, with a sampling-to-result identification time of 60 min. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2023, 2019

12 pages, 3679 KiB  
Protocol
A Green and Simple Protocol for Extraction and Application of a Peroxidase-Rich Enzymatic Extract
by Gonçalo P. Rosa, Maria do Carmo Barreto, Diana C. G. A. Pinto and Ana M. L. Seca
Methods Protoc. 2020, 3(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps3020025 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5229
Abstract
Recently there is a great social expectation that scientists should produce more sustainable and environmentally friendly chemical processes. Within this necessity, biocatalysis presents many attractive features because reactions are often performed in water, under mild conditions, the catalyst is biodegradable and can be [...] Read more.
Recently there is a great social expectation that scientists should produce more sustainable and environmentally friendly chemical processes. Within this necessity, biocatalysis presents many attractive features because reactions are often performed in water, under mild conditions, the catalyst is biodegradable and can be obtained from renewable raw materials. In this work, we propose a simple, rapid and low-cost method for the preparation and application of an enzymatic extract from turnip root. The protocol described includes (1) the preparation of the enzymatic extract, (2) the procedure for the assessment of the more favorable working parameters (temperature, pH) and (3) the methodology for the application of the extract as the catalyst for biotransformation reactions. We anticipate that the protocol in this research will provide a simple way for obtaining an enzymatic extract which can operate efficiently under mild conditions and can effectively catalyze the biotransformation of simple phenols. Full article
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Graphical abstract

2019

Jump to: 2023, 2020

8 pages, 2367 KiB  
Protocol
Synthesis Chalones and Their Isomerization into Flavanones and Azaflavanones
by Djenisa H. A. Rocha, Patrícia A. A. M. Vaz, Diana C. G. A. Pinto and Artur M. S. Silva
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps2030070 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3818
Abstract
Flavanones [2-aryl-2,3-dihydrochromen-4(1H)ones] and 2-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones are valuable precursors in the synthesis of important pharmacological scaffolds, so efficient methodologies towards their synthesis are important in the medicinal chemistry context. Their synthesis also involves theoretical concepts such as aldol condensation, isomerization, and [...] Read more.
Flavanones [2-aryl-2,3-dihydrochromen-4(1H)ones] and 2-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones are valuable precursors in the synthesis of important pharmacological scaffolds, so efficient methodologies towards their synthesis are important in the medicinal chemistry context. Their synthesis also involves theoretical concepts such as aldol condensation, isomerization, and catalysis that make it useful in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. The use of both microwave irradiation as a source of energy to promote reactions and efficient catalysts are considered within green chemistry principles, mostly because the reaction yields are improved and reaction time decreased. In this paper, the efficiency of microwave irradiation use in the synthesis of chalcone derivatives and efficient catalyst systems to promote their isomerization into flavanones and 2-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones is demonstrated. Full article
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7 pages, 2757 KiB  
Protocol
Solvent-Free Synthesis of 2,5-Bis((dimethylamino)methylene)cyclopentanone
by Inês S. Martins and Jaime A. S. Coelho
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps2030069 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3542
Abstract
Available protocols for the synthesis of ketocyanine dyes precursor 2,5-bis((dimethylamino)methylene)cyclopentanone are not straightforward and the reported yields are low to moderate. The important feature in the synthesis of this product through organocatalyzed condensation of cyclopentanone and N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal is [...] Read more.
Available protocols for the synthesis of ketocyanine dyes precursor 2,5-bis((dimethylamino)methylene)cyclopentanone are not straightforward and the reported yields are low to moderate. The important feature in the synthesis of this product through organocatalyzed condensation of cyclopentanone and N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal is the removal of methanol produced during the reaction. By studying the reaction profile, in particular the selectivity for the formation of mono- and bis-condensation products, a high yield of the desired product can be obtained through an operationally simple and solvent-free protocol. Full article
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9 pages, 6354 KiB  
Benchmark
Process Intensification for the Synthesis of 6-Allyl-6-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-en-2-ol from 1-Allylpyridinium Salt Using a Continuous UV-Light Photoflow Approach
by Milene A. G. Fortunato, Chi-Phong Ly, Filipa Siopa and Carlos A. M. Afonso
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps2030067 - 5 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
A new home-made UV photochemical reactor (95 cm of irradiation zone) consisting of a 12 parallel quartz tubes flow reactor, PQT6 (95 cm under irradiation and an internal diameter of 0.6 cm) was assembled to perform photochemical transformations in continuous-flow. PQT6 was evaluated [...] Read more.
A new home-made UV photochemical reactor (95 cm of irradiation zone) consisting of a 12 parallel quartz tubes flow reactor, PQT6 (95 cm under irradiation and an internal diameter of 0.6 cm) was assembled to perform photochemical transformations in continuous-flow. PQT6 was evaluated for the photoreaction of 1-allylpyridinium bromide (1a) to 6-allyl-6-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-en-2-ol (2a), in a continuous process. This technology provides reduced reaction times, continuous production of 2a, and a productivity of 129 mg h−1, corresponding to 1.94 g of isolated 2a after 15 h of irradiation. Full article
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