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Special Issue "Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jesús Martínez de la Fuente
Website
Guest Editor
CSIC-UZA - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: nanomedicine; nanoparticles; nanoplasmonics; magnetic hyperthermia
Dr. Laura Asín
Website
Guest Editor
CIBER Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: magnetic hyperthermia; cell-nanoparticle interactions; nanotherapy; magnetic actuators

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, inorganic and organic nanoparticles can be designed with almost any shape, size, and composition. Substantial efforts have been undertaken to achieve this level of design. However, only a few products have reached the market and are actually under commercialization. This Special Issue will collect and provide an overview for biotechnologists, physicians, and biologists of the main innovations in the field of nanotechnology for biotechnological, and biomedical applications. This Special Issue will contain broad revisions and original contributions, collecting good examples of the state-of-the-art nanoparticle designs and their most novel and innovative applications in the field.

Dr. Jesús Martínez de la Fuente
Dr. Laura Asín
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanotherapy
  • Nanobiosensors
  • Nanoparticles
  • Drug delivery

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Honey/Chitosan Nanofibers Loaded with Capsaicin and Gold Nanoparticles for Wound Dressing
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4770; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204770 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper describes the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of honey/tripolyphosphate (TPP)/chitosan (HTCs) nanofibers loaded with capsaicin derived from the natural extract of hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) and loaded with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as biocompatible antimicrobial nanofibrous wound bandages in topical [...] Read more.
This paper describes the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of honey/tripolyphosphate (TPP)/chitosan (HTCs) nanofibers loaded with capsaicin derived from the natural extract of hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) and loaded with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as biocompatible antimicrobial nanofibrous wound bandages in topical skin treatments. The capsaicin and AuNPs were packed within HTCs in HTCs-capsaicin, HTCs-AuNP, and HTCs-AuNPs/capsaicin nanofibrous mats. In vitro antibacterial testing against Pasteurella multocida, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis,Staphylococcus pyogenes, and Vibrio vulnificus was conducted in comparison with difloxacin and chloramphenicol antibiotics. Cell viability and proliferation of the developed nanofibers were evaluated using an MTT assay. Finally, in vivo study of the wound-closure process was performed on New Zealand white rabbits. The results indicate that HTCs-capsaicin and HTCs-AuNPs are suitable in inhibiting bacterial growth compared with HTCs and HTCs-capsaicin/AuNP nanofibers and antibiotics (P < 0.01). The MTT assay demonstrates that the nanofibrous mats increased cell proliferation compared with the untreated control (P < 0.01). In vivo results show that the developed mats enhanced the wound-closure rate more effectively than the control samples. The novel nanofibrous wound dressings provide a relatively rapid and efficacious wound-healing ability, making the obtained nanofibers promising candidates for the development of improved bandage materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanohydroxyapatite-Mediated Imatinib Delivery for Specific Anticancer Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4602; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204602 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
In the present study, a nanoapatite-mediated delivery system for imatinib has been proposed. Nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) was obtained by co-precipitation method, and its physicochemical properties in combination with imatinib (IM) were studied by means of XRPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive [...] Read more.
In the present study, a nanoapatite-mediated delivery system for imatinib has been proposed. Nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) was obtained by co-precipitation method, and its physicochemical properties in combination with imatinib (IM) were studied by means of XRPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), absorption spectroscopy as well as DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) techniques. The obtained hydroxyapatite was defined as nanosized rod-shaped particles with high crystallinity. The amorphous imatinib was obtained by conversion of its crystalline form. The beneficial effects of amorphous pharmaceutical agents have been manifested in the higher dissolution rate in body fluids improving their bioavailability. Imatinib-to-hydroxyapatite interactions on the surface were confirmed by SEM images as well as absorption and FT-IR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the system was tested on NI-1, L929, and D17 cell lines. The effectiveness of imatinib was not affected by nHAp modification. The calculated IC50 values for drug-modified nHAp were similar to those for the drug itself. However, higher cytotoxicity was observed at higher concentrations of imatinib, in comparison with the drug alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bottom-Up Synthesis Approach to Silver Nanoparticles Induces Anti-Proliferative and Apoptotic Activities Against MCF-7, MCF-7/TAMR-1 and MCF-10A Human Breast Cell Lines
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184332 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
A bottom-up approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-GA) phytomediated by Garcinia atroviridis leaf extract is described. Under optimized conditions, the AgNPs-GA were synthesized at a concentration of 0.1 M silver salt and 10% (w/v) leaf extract, 1:4 mixing ratio [...] Read more.
A bottom-up approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-GA) phytomediated by Garcinia atroviridis leaf extract is described. Under optimized conditions, the AgNPs-GA were synthesized at a concentration of 0.1 M silver salt and 10% (w/v) leaf extract, 1:4 mixing ratio of reactants, pH 3, temperature 32 °C and 72 h reaction time. The AgNPs-GA were characterized by various analytical techniques and their size was determined to be 5–30 nm. FTIR spectroscopy indicates the role of phenolic functional groups in the reduction of silver ions into AgNPs-GA and in supporting their subsequent stability. The UV-Visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at 450 nm which reflects the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs-GA and further supports the stability of these biosynthesized nanoparticles. SEM, TEM and XRD diffractogram analyses indicate that AgNPs-GA were spherical and face-centered-cubic in shape. This study also describes the efficacy of biosynthesized AgNPs-GA as anti-proliferative agent against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1. Our findings indicate that AgNPs-GA possess significant anti-proliferative effects against both the MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1 cell lines, with inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50 values) of 2.0 and 34.0 µg/mL, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. An induction of apoptosis was evidenced by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Therefore, AgNPs-GA exhibited its anti-proliferative activity via apoptosis on MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1 breast cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, the leaf extract from Garcinia atroviridis was found to be highly capable of producing AgNPs-GA with favourable physicochemical and biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Antitumor and Anti-Metastatic Effects of Citral-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier in 4T1-Induced Breast Cancer Mouse Model
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2670; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112670 - 09 Jun 2020
Abstract
Cancer nano-therapy has been progressing rapidly with the introduction of many novel drug delivery systems. The previous study has reported on the in vitro cytotoxicity of citral-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC-Citral) on MDA-MB-231 cells and some preliminary in vivo antitumor effects on 4T1 [...] Read more.
Cancer nano-therapy has been progressing rapidly with the introduction of many novel drug delivery systems. The previous study has reported on the in vitro cytotoxicity of citral-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC-Citral) on MDA-MB-231 cells and some preliminary in vivo antitumor effects on 4T1 breast cancer cells challenged mice. However, the in vivo apoptosis induction and anti-metastatic effects of NLC-Citral have yet to be reported. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxic, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects of NLC-Citral were tested on 4T1 breast cancer cells. In addition, the in vivo antitumor effects of oral delivery of NLC-Citral was also evaluated on BALB/c mice induced with 4T1 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed that NLC-Citral and citral gave similar IC50 values on 4T1 cells. However, wound healing, migration, and invasion assays reflected better in vitro anti-metastasis potential for NLC-Citral than citral alone. Results from the in vivo study indicated that both NLC-Citral and citral have anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects, whereby the NLC-Citral showed better efficacy than citral in all experiments. Also, the delay of tumor progression was through the suppression of the c-myc gene expression and induction of apoptosis in the tumor. In addition, the inhibition of metastasis of 4T1 cells to lung and bone marrow by the NLC-Citral and citral treatments was correlated with the downregulation of metastasis-related genes expression including MMP-9, ICAM, iNOS, and NF-kB and the angiogenesis-related proteins including G-CSF alpha, Eotaxin, bFGF, VEGF, IL-1alpha, and M-CSF in the tumor. Moreover, NLC-Citral showed greater downregulation of MMP-9, iNOS, ICAM, Eotaxin, bFGF, VEGF, and M-CSF than citral treatment in the 4T1-challenged mice, which may contribute to the better anti-metastatic effect of the encapsulated citral. This study suggests that NLC is a potential and effective delivery system for citral to target triple-negative breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Probing the Electron Transfer between iLOV Protein and Ag Nanoparticles
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112544 - 29 May 2020
Abstract
Nanomaterials have been widely used in biomedical sciences; however, the mechanism of interaction between nanoparticles and biomolecules is still not fully understood. In the present study, we report the interaction mechanism between differently sized Ag nanoparticles and the improved light-oxygen-voltage (iLOV) protein. The [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials have been widely used in biomedical sciences; however, the mechanism of interaction between nanoparticles and biomolecules is still not fully understood. In the present study, we report the interaction mechanism between differently sized Ag nanoparticles and the improved light-oxygen-voltage (iLOV) protein. The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence results demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of the iLOV protein decreased upon its adsorption onto Ag nanoparticles, and this decrease was dependent upon nanoparticle size. Further, we showed that the decrease of fluorescence intensity and lifetime arose from electron transfer between iLOV and Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, through point mutation and controlled experimentation, we demonstrated for the first time that electron transfer between iLOV and Ag nanoparticles is mediated by the tryptophan residue in the iLOV protein. These results are of great importance in revealing the function of iLOV protein as it applies to biomolecular sensors, the field of nano-photonics, and the interaction mechanism between the protein and nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
γ-Nanofluid Thermal Transport between Parallel Plates Suspended by Micro-Cantilever Sensor by Incorporating the Effective Prandtl Model: Applications to Biological and Medical Sciences
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081777 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The flow of nanofluid between infinite parallel plates suspended by micro-cantilever sensors is significant. The analysis of such flows is a rich research area due to the variety of applications it has in chemical, biological and medical sciences. Micro-cantilever sensors play a significant [...] Read more.
The flow of nanofluid between infinite parallel plates suspended by micro-cantilever sensors is significant. The analysis of such flows is a rich research area due to the variety of applications it has in chemical, biological and medical sciences. Micro-cantilever sensors play a significant role in accurately sensing different diseases, and they can be used to detect many hazardous and bio-warfare agents. Therefore, flow water and ethylene glycol (EG) composed by γ-nanoparticles is used. Firstly, the governing nanofluid model is transformed into two self-similar nanofluid models on the basis of their effective models. Then, a numerical method is adopted for solution purposes, and both the nanofluid models are solved. To enhance the heat transfer characteristics of the models, the effective Prandtl model is ingrained in the energy equation. The velocity F’(η) decreases with respect to the suction of the fluid, because more fluid particles drags on the surface for suction, leading to an abrupt decrement in F’(η). The velocity F’(η) increases for injection of the fluid from the upper end, and therefore the momentum boundary layer region is prolonged. A high volume fraction factor is responsible for the denser characteristics of the nanofluids, due to which the fluids become more viscous, and the velocity F’(η) drops abruptly, with the magnetic parameters favoring velocity F’(η). An increase in temperature β ( η ) of Al2O3-H2O and γAl2O3-C2H6O2 nanofluids was reported at higher fraction factors with permeable parameter effects. Finally, a comparative analysis is presented by restricting the flow parameters, which shows the reliability of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Gold Nanoparticles for Vectorization of Nucleic Acids for Cancer Therapeutics
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153489 - 31 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cancer remains a complex medical challenge and one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Nanomedicines have been proposed as innovative platforms to tackle these complex diseases, where the combination of several treatment strategies might enhance therapy success. Among these nanomedicines, nanoparticle mediated [...] Read more.
Cancer remains a complex medical challenge and one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Nanomedicines have been proposed as innovative platforms to tackle these complex diseases, where the combination of several treatment strategies might enhance therapy success. Among these nanomedicines, nanoparticle mediated delivery of nucleic acids has been put forward as key instrument to modulate gene expression, be it targeted gene silencing, interference RNA mechanisms and/or gene edition. These novel delivery systems have strongly relied on nanoparticles and, in particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have paved the way for efficient delivery systems due to the possibility to fine-tune their size, shape and surface properties, coupled to the ease of functionalization with different biomolecules. Herein, we shall address the different molecular tools for modulation of expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and discuss the state-of-the-art of AuNP functionalization for nucleic acid delivery both in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, we shall highlight the clinical applications of these spherical AuNP based conjugates for gene delivery, current challenges, and future perspectives in nanomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Intranasal Delivery of Nanoformulations: A Potential Way of Treatment for Neurological Disorders
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081929 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Although the global prevalence of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, glioblastoma, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis is steadily increasing, effective delivery of drug molecules in therapeutic quantities to the central nervous system (CNS) is still lacking. The blood brain barrier (BBB) [...] Read more.
Although the global prevalence of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, glioblastoma, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis is steadily increasing, effective delivery of drug molecules in therapeutic quantities to the central nervous system (CNS) is still lacking. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is the major obstacle for the entry of drugs into the brain, as it comprises a tight layer of endothelial cells surrounded by astrocyte foot processes that limit drugs’ entry. In recent times, intranasal drug delivery has emerged as a reliable method to bypass the BBB and treat neurological diseases. The intranasal route for drug delivery to the brain with both solution and particulate formulations has been demonstrated repeatedly in preclinical models, including in human trials. The key features determining the efficacy of drug delivery via the intranasal route include delivery to the olfactory area of the nares, a longer retention time at the nasal mucosal surface, enhanced penetration of the drugs through the nasal epithelia, and reduced drug metabolism in the nasal cavity. This review describes important neurological disorders, challenges in drug delivery to the disordered CNS, and new nasal delivery techniques designed to overcome these challenges and facilitate more efficient and targeted drug delivery. The potential for treatment possibilities with intranasal transfer of drugs will increase with the development of more effective formulations and delivery devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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