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Special Issue "Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chiara Dall'Asta

Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mycotoxins; food chemistry; food safety; food quality; xenobiotics
Guest Editor
Dr. Luca Dellafiora

Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mycotoxins; food safety; toxicology; toxicodynamic; computational method for biological/toxicological assessment of xenobiotics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are referred to as low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites produced by molds (ascomycetes mushrooms) that may have a wide spectrum of adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants. In particular, their almost unavoidable occurrence in food and feed is posing a severe threat to public health, and it is also a possible cause of trade friction on a global scale. Most of their effects are organ-specific, but some mycotoxins may have broader effects at a systemic level. The induction of cancer by some mycotoxins through initiation and promotion processing, in animals and possibly in humans, is one of the major concerns regarding their chronic effects, albeit their pleiotropic effects may be responsible for a wealth of disfunctions and altered physiological states at both chronic and acute levels. As an example, the modulation of immune systems as well as endocrine disrupting activity are among the effects of most concerns studied over the years.

Meanwhile, fungal secondary metabolites can also benefit humans in different ways. For instance, they can be used as antibiotics (penicillins) or immunosuppressants (cyclosporine).

In this Special Issue, original reaserch findings and review articles dealing with, but not limited to, the mechanisms and modes of action in both animals and plants, treatments to counteract adverse effects in living organisms, strategies to prevent and/or reduce accumulation in the food and feed production chains, innovative strategies of detection, as well as sound evidence pointing to possible beneficial effects of fungal metabolites are considered for publication.

Prof. Dr. Chiara Dall'Asta
Dr. Luca Dellafiora
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Aflatoxins
  • Fumonisins
  • Satratoxins
  • Ochratoxin
  • Fungal ecology
  • Mycotoxin occurrence
  • Mycotoxin analysis
  • Mycotoxin mitigation
  • Food/feed security
  • Food safety
  • Mycotoxins toxicology

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Interaction of Dihydrocitrinone with Native and Chemically Modified Cyclodextrins
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071328
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
PDF Full-text (2308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus genera. It appears as a contaminant in grains, fruits, and spices. After oral exposure to CIT, its major urinary metabolite, dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is formed, which can be detected in [...] Read more.
Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus genera. It appears as a contaminant in grains, fruits, and spices. After oral exposure to CIT, its major urinary metabolite, dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is formed, which can be detected in human urine and blood samples. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are ring-shaped molecules built up from glucose units. CDs can form host-guest type complexes with several compounds, including mycotoxins. In this study, the complex formation of DHC with native and chemically modified beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins was tested at a wide pH range, employing steady-state fluorescence spectroscopic and modeling studies. The weakly acidic environment favors the formation of DHC-CD complexes. Among the CDs tested, the quaternary-ammonium-γ-cyclodextrin (QAGCD) formed the most stable complexes with DHC. However, the quaternary-ammonium-β-cyclodextrin (QABCD) induced the strongest enhancement in the fluorescence signal of DHC. Our results show that some of the chemically modified CDs are able to form stable complexes with DHC (logK = 3.2–3.4) and the complex formation can produce even a 20-fold increase in the fluorescence signal of DHC. Considering the above-listed observations, CD technology may be a promising tool to increase the sensitivity of the fluorescence detection of DHC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Bioactive Sauce Based on Oriental Mustard Flour with Antifungal Properties for Pita Bread Shelf Life Improvement
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061019
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
PDF Full-text (1411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced in the secondary metabolism of fungus belonging to the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. In this study, the employment of oriental mustard flour (OMF) as an ingredient in a packaged sauce was evaluated for the generation [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced in the secondary metabolism of fungus belonging to the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. In this study, the employment of oriental mustard flour (OMF) as an ingredient in a packaged sauce was evaluated for the generation in situ of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in order to preserve pita bread contaminated with Penicillium verrucosum VTT D-01847, an OTA producer, in an active packaging system. Four different concentrations (8, 16, 33 and 50 mg/g) were tested. Mycelium formation, mycotoxin production, AITC absorbed by the food matrix, and volatilization kinetics were studied for each concentration. The results obtained were compared with bread treated with the commercial additive calcium propionate (E-282). The results showed a shelf life increase of two and three days with the employment of 33 and 50 mg/g of OMF, with a significant reduction of the fungal population (3.1 and 5.7 logs, respectively) in comparison with the control experiment. The use of 16 and 33 mg/g of OMF in the sauce formulation decreased the concentration of OTA in the bread samples while no OTA production was detected employing 50 mg/g of OMF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins)
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